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Table 1 Baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics

From: Could successful cryoballoon ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation prevent progressive left atrial remodeling?

  Total study population (n = 36) Recurrent group (n = 21) AF-free group (n = 15) Normal values from the literature Reference number
Clinical characteristics
Age (yrs) 57.4 ± 8.9 59.6 ± 5.8 54.2 ± 11.5 - -
Duration of AF(yrs) 6.7 ± 7.3 8.8 ± 8.7 3.8 ± 3.3* - -
Male (%) 26 (72%) 13 (62%) 13 (87%) - -
Hypertension (%) 27 (75%) 15 (71%) 12 (80%) - -
Obesity (%) 10 (28%) 3 (14%) 7 (47%) - -
Ischaemic HD 4 (11%) 3 (14%) 1 (7%) - -
Echocardiographic characteristics
LV EF (%) 63 ± 5 64 ± 5 62 ± 6 ≥ 55% [19]
LAV max (ml) 71 ± 21 73 ± 23 67 ± 20 < 56 [19]
LAVI (ml/m 2 ) 34 ± 10 35 ± 10 33 ± 9 < 29 [19]
LAV min (ml) 36 ± 17 38+19 30 ± 12 25 ± 13 [24]
LA SI diam (mm) 55 ± 5 55 ± 5 54 ± 6 - -
LAEF (%) 51 ± 10 48 ± 11 55 ± 8* 56 ± 8 [24]
LAFF (%) 35 ± 7 36 ± 7 34 ± 7 41 ± 14 [24]
PVSF (%) 59 ± 8 58 ± 9 60 ± 7 60 ± 9 [25]
Aa lat (cm/s) 10.1 ± 2.3 9.7 ± 2 10.7 ± 2.7 - -
Aa sept (cm/s) 9.1 ± 2 8.8 ± 1.8 9.7 ± 2.1 - -
Ea lat (cm/s) 11.1 ± 2.8 11.2 ± 2.4 10.9 ± 3.2 > 10 [23]
Ea sept (cm/s) 8.4 ± 2.3 8.1 ± 1.9 8.8 ± 2.8 > 8 [23]
E/Ea avg 7.3 ± 2 7.2 ± 1.8 7.3 ± 2.1 < 8 [23]
  1. *: p < 0.05, recurrent vs AF-free group
  2. Abbreviations:
  3. Aa lat ; late diastolic velocity measured by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography at the lateral mitral annulus
  4. Aa sept ; late diastolic velocity measured by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography at the septal mitral annulus
  5. AF; atrial fibrillation
  6. E; early diastolic velocity of mitral pulsed wave Doppler inflow
  7. Ea avg ; average value of septal and lateral early diastolic velocities measured by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography
  8. Ea lat ; early diastolic velocity measured by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography at the lateral mitral annulus
  9. Ea sept ; early diastolic velocity measured by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography at the septal mitral annulus
  10. EF; ejection fraction HD; heart disease
  11. LAEF; left atrial total emptying fraction
  12. LAFF; left atrial filling fraction
  13. LAV; left atrial volume
  14. LAVI; left atrial volume index
  15. LAV max ; left atrial maximal volume
  16. LAV min ; left atrial minimal volume
  17. LV; left ventricular
  18. PVSF; systolic fraction of pulmonary venous flow