Anatomical region for measurement and blood velocity profiles of the three arteries. Blood flow (BF) measurements were obtained for the upper abdominal aorta (Ao) above the coeliac artery bifurcation and for the bilateral femoral arteries (right and left femoral arteries; RFA and LFA, respectively). Comprehensive BF in the lower abdomen (BFAb) was calculated by subtracting bilateral femoral arterial flow (BFLFA + BFRFA) from BFAo. The splanchnic gastrointestinal blood vessels include the renal (RA) and coeliac arteries (CA), and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries (SMA and IMA, respectively). Figure modified from Osada et al. , reproduced with permission from IOP Publishing Ltd.