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Table 3 Indications to PFO Closure

From: Percutaneous treatment of patients with heart diseases: selection, guidance and follow-up. A review

CLINICAL INDICATIONS CLINICAL CONTRAINDICATIONS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC CONTRAINDICATIONS
Cryptogenic Strokes
Migraine with Aura
+
Thrombophylia
and/or
Peripheral Venous Thrombosis
and/or
Previous History of Paradoxical Embolism
Severe Pulmonary Hypertension
Recent Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Controndications to Antiplatelet or Anticoagulant Therapy
Infection at the Time of Implantation
Atrial Septal Aneurysm
and/or
Large Size of PFO (≥ 4 mm)
and/or
Long Tunnel of PFO (≥ 1 cm)
and/or
Severe Right to Left Shunting (> 30 Bubles)
and/or
Shunting at Rest
Other Congenital Heart Defects
Eustachian valve and ChiariNetwork