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Table 4 Indications to ASD Closure

From: Percutaneous treatment of patients with heart diseases: selection, guidance and follow-up. A review

CLINICAL INDICATIONS CLINICAL CONTRAINDICATIONS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC CONTRAINDICATIONS
Cryptogenic Strokes
Symptoms
Severe Pulmonary Hypertension
Recent Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Contraindications to Antiplatelet or Anticoagulant Therapy
Infection at the Time of Implantation
Qp/Qs ≥ 1,5
Right Atrial and/or Right Ventricular Enlargement
Other Congenital Heart Defects
ASD Diameter > 40 mm
Inadequate Septal Rims
Close Proximity to Coronary Sinus or Inferior Vena Cava