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Table 2 Left ventricular parameters during control, adrenaline and beta-blockade

From: Left ventricular twist is load-dependent as shown in a large animal model with controlled cardiac load

   Control Adrenaline   Beta blockade  
Apnea measurement
HR (bpm) 125 ± 19 147 ± 29   101 ± 12  
SV (mL) 60 ± 9 65 ± 26   50 ± 17 #
CO (L/min) 7.4 ± 1.3 9.3 ± 3.8   5.0 ± 1.7 #
Ves (mL) 40.9 ± 4.4 37.8 ± 15.3   55.8 ± 10.4 #
Ved (mL) 96.5 ± 8.4 100.3 ± 31.9   101.6 ± 22.6  
Pes (mm Hg) 119.0 ± 7.4 121.8 ± 5.1   106.7 ± 16.0  
Ped (mm Hg) 15.6 ± 5.2 15.8 ± 6.7   19.6 ± 5.7  
dPdt max (mm Hg/s) 2830 ± 430 5483 ± 14 # 1726 ± 594 #
EF (%) 62.0 ± 6.1 64.9 ± 14.0   47.7 ± 8.0 #
SW (mm Hg mL) 6744 ± 1054 8254 ± 3061   4608 ± 1858 #
dPdt min (mm Hg/s) −2889 ± 193 −3483 ± 680   −2051 ± 553  
Tau (ms) 33.9 ± 4.8 24.5 ± 2.2 # 48.6 ± 25.9  
PHT (ms) 20.8 ± 2.4 15.6 ± 2.1 # 32.0 ± 14.6 #
PWRmax (mm Hg mL/s) 50210 ± 9173 72286 ± 30668   35756 ± 10130 #
PWRmax/EDV2   5.46 ± 1.15 8.30 ± 4.24   3.62 ± 0.94 #
dPdt/EDV (mm Hg/s/mL) 29.7 ± 5.8 63.1 ± 29.5 # 18.0 ± 9.8 #
VCBO measurement
Ees (mm Hg/mL) 0.95 ± 0.32 1.65 ± 1.00 # 1.03 ± 0.61  
PRSW (mm Hg) 83.4 ± 12.5 100.1 ± 28.5   56.6 ± 18.3 #
  1. HR = heart rate; SV = stroke volume; CO = cardiac output; Ves = end-systolic volume; Ved = end-diastolic volume; Pes = end-systolic pressure; Ped = end-diastolic pressure; dPdt max = maximal rate of pressure increase; EF = ejection fraction; SW = stroke work; Tau = isovolumic relaxation time constant; PHT = pressure half time during diastole: dPdt min = maximal rate of pressure decrease; PWRmax = maximal power; Ees = end-systolic elastance; PRSW = preload recruitable stroke work. Data are presented as mean ± 95% confidence intervals, n = 7. # = p < 0.05 using Wilcoxons Signed Rank test vs. Control.
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