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Table 3 Echocardiographic parameters during vena cava occlusion

From: Left ventricular twist is load-dependent as shown in a large animal model with controlled cardiac load

CONTROL   First beat Last beat  
Twist_AVC (deg) 9.71 ± 2.53 13.07 ± 3.72 #
Twist_MAX (deg) 11.67 ± 2.65 16.17 ± 3.56 #
Rot_AVC apex (deg) 7.00 ± 2.01 8.86 ± 3.92  
Rot_AVC base (deg) −1.57 ± 2.65 −3.61 ± 3.02 #
Rot_Max apex (deg) 8.10 ± 2.29 10.70 ± 3.17  
Rot_AVC base (deg) −2.40 ± 3.28 −5.47 ± 2.58 #
IVR_Diff (deg) 0.61 ± 1.44 4.71 ± 3.10 #
Rot_rate (deg/s) −41.7 ± 41.6 −122.6 ± 55.8 #
ADRENALINE
Twist_AVC (deg) 8.23 ± 4.06 12.13 ± 3.55 #
Twist_MAX (deg) 12.56 ± 5.10 16.57 ± 4.60 #
Rot_AVC apex (deg) 4.00 ± 3.35 7.33 ± 3.32 #
Rot_AVC base (deg) −4.23 ± 2.86 −1.80 ± 5.03  
Rot_Max apex (deg) 7.51 ± 3.75 10.66 ± 3.39  
Rot_AVC base (deg) −5.24 ± 3.37 −5.91 ± 2.51  
IVR_Diff (deg) 1.08 ± 0.93 2.54 ± 1.73  
Rot_rate (deg/s) −55.3 ± 13.8 −111.4 ± 24.0 #
BETA-BLOCKADE
Twist_AVC (deg) 9.33 ± 4.52 11.67 ± 5.46  
Twist_MAX (deg) 10.60 ± 4.66 13.51 ± 5.74  
Rot_AVC apex (deg) 7.19 ± 4.61 6.04 ± 5.35  
Rot_AVC base (deg) −1.46 ± 1.60 −4.01 ± 3.06  
Rot_Max apex (deg) 7.81 ± 4.08 7.14 ± 5.69  
Rot_AVC base (deg) −2.53 ± 2.15 −5.14 ± 3.58  
IVR_Diff (deg) 1.07 ± 1.42 2.53 ± 3.85  
Rot_rate (deg/s) −53.1 ± 40.5 −48.3 ± 46.5  
  1. Twist AVC- net difference of LV rotation between apical and basal short axis planes at aortic valve closure; Twist Max- maximal LV rotation difference; Rot AVC apex- rotation at apical short axis plane at aortic valve closure; Rot AVC base- rotation at basal short axis plane at aortic valve closure; Rot Max apex- maximal rotation at apical short axis plane; Rot Max base-maximal rotation at basal short axis plane; IVR Diff- difference in untwisting under IVR period; Rot rate- untwisting rate under IVR period. Data are presented as mean ± 95% confidence intervals, n = 7. # = p < 0.05 using Wilcoxon’s Signed Rank test vs. first beat.
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