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Table 2 Reference values of global, 4-chamber, and 2-chamber peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) and time to peak strain (TPLS).

From: Novel echocardiographic techniques to assess left atrial size, anatomy and function

  Mean ± DS 5°-95° Percentile
PALS (%)   
Global 42.2 ± 6.1 32.2 - 53.2
4-chamber 40.1 ± 7.9 29.0 - 53.6
2-chamber 44.3 ± 6.0 35.2 - 52.7
TPLS (ms)   
Global 368.0 ± 29.9 322.9 - 430.4
4-chamber 364.2 ± 42.6 300.8 - 436.9
2-chamber 367.4 ± 34.1 326.4 - 435.2