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Table 2 Patient characteristics and echocardiographic parameters in 140 persistent AF patients with a low CHADS2 score (≤1)

From: Motion of left atrial appendage as a determinant of thrombus formation in patients with a low CHADS2 score receiving warfarin for persistent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

  AF without thrombus AF with thrombus p-value
  (n = 125) (n = 15)  
Clinical parameters    
 Age (year) 62.1 ± 9.6 65.3 ± 9.0 0.23
 Male, n (%) 93 (74) 12 (80) 0.64
 Smoking, n (%) 21 (17) 5 (33) 0.16
 Diabetes Mellitus, n (%) 9 (7) 1 (7) >0.99
 Hypertension, n (%) 56 (45) 10 (67) 0.11
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 27 (21) 1 (7) 0.30
 CHADS2 score = 1 88 (71) 14 (93) 0.059
 AF duration (year) 5.9 ± 5.7 6.3 ± 3.4 0.83
 PT-INR 1.89 ± 0.49 1.84 ± 0.35 0.65
 PT-INR met guideline, n (%) 68 (54) 11 (73) 0.18
Echocardiographic parameters
 LVEF (%) 59.1 ± 6.6 57.3 ± 4.8 0.29
 LAD (mm) 46.0 ± 6.7 49.5 ± 7.5 0.064
 Maximum LAA volume (ml) 10.2 ± 4.7 17.9 ± 8.1 <0.001
 Minimum LAA volume (ml) 7.0 ± 3.8 14.8 ± 7.1 <0.001
 SEC score (0-4 grade) 1 (1 – 1) 1 (1 – 2) 0.047
 LAAPV (cm/sec) 31.9 ± 12.2 23.0 ± 8.3 0.007
 LAA peak longitudinal strain 9.3 ± 5.6 2.5 ± 1.5 <0.001
 LAAEF (%) 33.5 ± 10.7 17.9 ± 3.6 <0.001
  1. Abbreviations as in Table1.