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Table 2 The mean values from 18 weeks of gestation to term for the myocardial time intervals and velocities during a cardiac cycle, as well as the Tei index and e’/a’ ratio

From: Reference values for fetal tissue velocity imaging and a new approach to evaluate fetal myocardial function

Variable Abbreviation Septum Left ventricular free wall Right ventricular fee wall
Time intervals (ms)     
Atrial contraction P1 67 / 83 (r = 0,344) 61 / 84 (r = 0,317) 81 / 94 (r = 0,214)
Pre ejection P2 23 (11–56) 24 (9–54) 26 (0–76)
Ventricular ejection P3 180 (95–277) 184 (126–245) 182 (95–303)
Post ejection P4 63 / 41 (r = 0,441) 61 / 36 (r = 0,353) 49 (17–87)
Rapid filling P5 71 / 109 (r = 0,403) 74 / 100 (r = 0,393) 72 / 98 (r = 0,416)
Slow filling P6 8 / 110 (r = 0,287 ) 4 (0–44) 3 (0–36)
Tei index   0,42 (0,13 – 0,64) 0,41 (0,17 – 0,85) 0,41 (0,14 – 0,89)
Peak velocities (cm/s)     
Atrial contraction a’ −2,4 / –3,9 (r = 0,387) −1,9 / –4,0 (r = 0,375) −4,0 / −6,2 (r = 0,421)
Pre ejection (pos) pre’pos 0,4 / 1,1 (r = 0,427) 0,3 / 2,0 (r = 0,489) 0,7 / 3,0 (r = 0,553)
Pre ejection (neg) pre’neg −0,1 (−2,8 – 1,5) −0,1 (−1,3 – 0,3) −0,1 (−1,3 – 3,7)
Ventricular ejection s’ 1,5 / 2,9 (r = 0,566) 1,1/ 2,8 (r = 0,512) 1,7 / 4,7 (r = 0,599)
Post ejection (neg) post’neg −0,3 (−1,8 – 1,0) −0,3 (−4,2 – o,9) −0,4 (−6,9 – 0,8)
Post ejection (pos) post’pos 0,3 / 1,0 (r = 0,395) 0,3 (−0,8 – 2,8) 0,4 (−5,0 – 2,7)
Rapid filling e’ −1,3 / −3,3 (r = 0,509) −1,2 / −3,1 (r = 0,528) −1,4 / −4,6 (r = 0,527)
Slow filling p6’ −0,5 / −1,3 (r = 0,373) −0,7 (−4,9 – 2,8) −1,9 (−6,7 – 3,5)
e’/a’   0,54 / 0,84 (r = 0,316) 0,56 / 0,84 (r = 0,358) 0,45 / 0,79 (r = 0,438)
  1. The variables that significantly changed throughout gestation are presented as mean values, where the nominator represents the mean value at 18 weeks of gestation and the denominator represents the mean value at term. The r-value is Pearson’s correlation coefficient, the correlation to advancing gestational age. The variables that did not show any significant change with gestational age are presented as median values within a range.