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Table 2 Echocardiographic data of the study sample

From: Evaluation of left atrial deformation to predict left atrial stasis in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation – a pilot-study

  Overall Group 1 Group 2 P
  (n = 82) (n = 16) (n = 66)
   LAAT or sludge No changes
Standard transthoracic echocardiogram data
Indexed LA volume (mL/m2) 47.0 ± 13.1 52.3 ± 13.2 45.8 ± 12.9 0.072
LVEF (%) 51.2 ± 12.7 49.3 ± 15.6 51.7 ± 12.0 0.734
Indexed LA volume / LVEF (mL/m2/%) 1.01 ± 0.55 1.24 ± 0.74 0.96 ± 0.49 0.153
Mitral regurgitation II/IV 18.3% (15) 12.5% (2) 19.7% (13) 0.504
E (cm/s) 97.8 ± 22.7 99.8 ± 20.0 97.2 ± 23.5 0.695
E’ (cm/s) 11.4 ± 2.4 11.6 ± 2.5 10.5 ± 1.9 0.113
E/E’ ratio 9.0 ± 3.2 9.8 ± 2.6 8.8 ± 3.3 0.268
Speckle tracking derived parameters
Av. peak positive LA strain (%) 11.6 ± 5.2 10.9 ± 3.5 11.8 ± 5.5 0.433
Av. peak negative LA strain (%) -4.0 ± 2.2 -3.5 ± 2.4 -4.1 ± 2.1 0.122
Av. peak-to-peak LA strain (%) 15.5 ± 5.0 14.4 ± 3.6 15.8 ± 5.3 0.312
Av. peak positive LA strain rate (s-1) 1.20 ± 0.32 1.00 ± 0.27 1.25 ± 0.32 0.003
Av. peak negative LA strain rate (s-1) -1.37 ± 0.42 -1.07 ± 0.22 -1.45 ± 0.42 <0.001
Av. peak-to-peak LA strain rate (s-1) 2.6 ± 0.7 2.1 ± 0.4 2.7 ± 0.7 <0.001
SD time-to-peak positive LA strain (ms) 97.2 ± 47.1 110.4 ± 37.4 94.0 ± 48.9 0.097
LV global longitudinal systolic strain (%) -12.6 ± 5.2 -12.3 ± 2.9 -12.6 ± 5.6 0.853
LV global longitudinal systolic strain rate (s-1) -0.84 ± 0.22 -0.82 ± 0.17 -0.85 ± 0.23 0.617
Transesophageal echocardiogram data
LAA maximum emptying flow velocity (cm/s) 26.8 ± 11.9 16.3 ± 4.2 29.2 ± 11.8 <0.001
LAA maximum filling flow velocity (cm/s) 33.8 ± 14.2 23.2 ± 8.4 36.2 ± 14.2 0.001
Dense spontaneous auto-contrast (≥ III/IV) 32.9% (27) 100% (16) 16.7% (11) <0.001
  1. Legend: LAAT – left atrial appendage thrombus; LA – left atrial; LV – left ventricle; LVEF – left ventricle ejection fraction; LAA – left atrial appendage; E – early diastolic filling velocity; E’ - early diastolic tissue velocity in the lateral mitral annulus; Av. – average; SD – standard deviation.