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Table 1 Baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics according to the presence of latent obstruction

From: Diverse geometric changes related to dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction without overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

  Control Total Resting DLVOTO Latent DLVOTO §P
(n = 30) (n = 168) (n = 33) (n = 135)
Age, yrs 70.5 ± 1.7 71.0 ± 10.9 68.5 ± 10.4 71.7 ± 11.0 0.134
Women, n (%) 17 (57) 98 (58) 19 (58) 79 (59) 0.922
Hypertension, n (%) 14 (47) 136 (81) 25 (76) 111 (82) 0.397
Diabetes, n (%) 5 (17) 54 (32) 7 (21) 47 (35) 0.134
SBP, mmHg 136.3 ± 14.6 129.0 ± 20.7* 122.9 ± 17.6 130.3 ± 21.2 0.095
DBP, mmHg 78.8 ± 7.5 71.2 ± 11.8† 71.4 ± 13.4 71.2 ± 11.5 0.948
LVEDD, mm 42.8 ± 3.4 39.3 ± 4.6† 39.1 ± 5.3 39.3 ± 4.4 0.785
LVESD, mm 28.1 ± 3.0 25.0 ± 3.3† 24.7 ± 3.8 25.0 ± 3.2 0.635
LVEDD/BSA, mm/m2 26.7 ± 2.9 24.1 ± 3.1† 23.6 ± 3.5 24.2 ± 3.0 0.303
LVESD/BSA, mm/m2 17.5 ± 2.5 15.3 ± 2.1† 14.9 ± 2.5 15.4 ± 2.0 0.255
LV ejection fraction, % 66.5 ± 6.1 69.0 ± 5.7* 69.5 ± 5.9 68.9 ± 5.6 0.558
LV mass index, g/m2 85.7 ± 15.7 89.0 ± 25.9 94.0 ± 31.2 87.7 ± 24.4 0.290
BST, mm 1.30 ± 0.16 1.72 ± 0.26† 1.76 ± 0.24 1.72 ± 0.26 0.372
PWTd, mm 9.67 ± 1.24 10.62 ± 1.70* 11.09 ± 1.76 10.51 ± 1.67 0.077
PWTs, mm 13.43 ± 1.72 14.37 ± 1.86* 14.82 ± 2.13 14.26 ± 1.78 0.123
IVTd, mm 10.07 ± 1.44 11.46 ± 1.96† 11.97 ± 2.20 11.34 ± 1.88 0.096
IVTs, mm 13.43 ± 1.72 15.02 ± 2.20† 15.33 ± 2.16 14.95 ± 2.21 0.369
Relative wall thickness 0.45 ± 0.07 0.55 ± 0.10† 0.58 ± 0.11 0.54 ± 0.10 0.084
E/A ratio 0.79 ± 0.13 0.69 ± 0.37 0.72 ± 0.32 0.68 ± 0.38 0.615
E/e’ 10.1 ± 3.2 13.9 ± 5.1† 15.8 ± 7.1 13.6 ± 4.5 0.123
S’, cm/s 9.5 ± 1.3 8.4 ± 2.2 9.5 ± 3.3 8.1 ± 2.0 0.048
LA volume index, ml/m2 21.7 ± 5.3 25.6 ± 10.9* 27.5 ± 18.6 25.1 ± 8.0 0.480
LVESWS, g/cm2 57.1 ± 12.4 49.8 ± 13.0* 57.8 ± 16.9 48.0 ± 11.4 0.007
Any diuretics, n (%) 4 (13) 56 (33)* 12 (36) 44 (33) 0.680
CCB- dihydropyridine, n (%) 2 (7) 80 (48)† 17 (52) 63 (47) 0.398
CCBs-non-dihydropyrine, n (%) 0 (0) 7 (4)† 0 (0) 7 (4)  
Any BBs, n (%) 2 (7) 44 (26)* 7 (21) 37 (27) 0.468
Angle at end-diastole, ° 145.6 ± 11.4 152.4 ± 12.3* 151.8 ± 11.9 152.5 ± 12.5 0.767
Angle at end-systole, ° 154.8 ± 11.6 162.2 ± 11.8* 162.1 ± 11.2 162.3 ± 12.0 0.933
Δ PG, mmHg   29.5 ± 17.5 29.1 ± 29.1 29.6 ± 15.3 0.946
PASP, mmHg 24.1 ± 5.3 28.8 ± 7.9* 32.2 ± 8.3 28.0 ± 7.6 0.007
  1. *p < 0.05, †p < 0.01, §resting DLVOTO vs. latent DLVOTO, SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; LV, left ventricular; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVESD, left ventricular end-systolic dimension; BSA, body surface area; BST, basal septal thickness; PWTd, end-diastolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness; LA, left atrial; LVESWS, left ventricular end-systolic wall stress; CCB, calcium channel blocker; BB, beta blocker; PG, pressure gradient.