Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Doppler echo exercise upright treadmill/bicycle test – examples of some centers and examined diseases/conditions

From: Need for a standardized protocol for stress echocardiography in provoking subaortic and valvular gradient in various cardiac conditions

Country, town of center, type of exercise machine Measured gradient Clinical impact of exercise echo in UPRIGHT position
1. Portugal, Almada , treadmill   Stratification risk of sudden death in HCM because LVOTG is risk factor
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [8, 14], LVOT Assessment of pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods reducing LVOTG
-Symptomatic athletes (Intra-ventricular obstruction induced by exercise in athletes with “positive screening” in medical evaluation for sports practice, [9] LVOT Verification of exercise-induced symptoms in relation to LVOTG
- Cardiac syndrome X [10] LVOT Monitoring treatment with beta blockers
- Pulmonary artery hypertension [11] Transtricuspid Verification of exercise-induced symptoms in relation to LVOTG
- Mitral stenosis [12] Tranmitral Monitoring the use of beta blockers
-Aortic stenosis [13] Transaortic Verification of exercise-increase of pulmonary hypertension (assessment of dyspnea)
   Verification of exercise-induced symptoms in relation to trasmitral gradient
   Verification of exercise-induced symptoms in relation to transaortic gradient
2. Poland, Cracow, treadmill   
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [15, 16] LVOT HCM see above
3. USA, Philadelphia, treadmill   
- “healthy“ youth for cardiac evaluation due palpitations, syndrome WPW, short of breath, chest pain [5] LVOT Hemodynamic verification of symptoms pathophysiology
4. Sweden, Vasteras, bicycle   
- Healthy athletes males [17] Transaortic Definition of normal value
5. USA, Spriengfield/ England, Liverpool, bicycle   
- Healthy adolescent boys and girls [18] Transaortic Definition of normal value
6. England, London, bicycle   
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [19] LVOT HCM see above
- Anderson-Fabry disease [20] LVOT Hemodynamic assessment the effect of myocardial hypertrophy induced by storage disease
7. Spain, A Coruna, treadmill   
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [21] LVOT HCM see above
8. Spain, Malaga, treadmill   
- Effort angina [22] LVOT Verification of exercise-induced symptoms
   Monitoring the effect of beta blockers
9. Altavilla Vicentina, Italy, treadmill (comparison with semi physiological test protocol) LVOT HCM see above
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [23]   
10. Germany, Munster, bicycle LVOT HCM see above
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [24]   
11. Korea, Seoul, treadmill Transaortic Verification of exercise-induced symptoms in relation to transaortic gradient
-Aortic stenosis [25]   
12. USA, Cleveland , treadmill LVOT HCM see above
-Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [26]   
13. Canada, Quebec, bicycle Transprothesis- Aortic Assessment of prosthesis function and ‘patients-prosthesis mismatch’ phenomenon
- Patients with a bioprosthesis in the aortic valve position [27] , bicycle   
- Comparison of stentless versus stented bioprostheses in aortic valvular position [28], bicycle