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Table 1 Common echocardiographic and lung sonography abnormalities in patients with heart failure

From: The potential value of integrated natriuretic peptide and echo-guided heart failure management

Measurement Abnormality Clinical implications
Parameters related to systolic function
LV ejection fraction Reduced (<50%) LV global systolic dysfunction
RV Tapse Reduced (<16 mm) RV global systolic dysfunction
Parameters related to diastolic function
E/e’ ratio Increased (>15) High LV filling pressure
Parameters related to pulmonary congestion
B-lines > 5 in anterior chest scan Extravascular lung water
Parameters related to valvular function
Mitral valve dysfunction Severe mitral regurgitation Cause/consequences of HF
Parameters related to contractile reserve
Global LV function during stress No contractile reserve Unresponsive scar tissue
  1. LV, left ventricle; RV, right ventricle; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. Adapted from ESC 2012, ref 17.