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Table 1 Sample characteristics of the 51 included studies

From: Reference intervals for the echocardiographic measurements of the right heart in children and adolescents: a systematic review

Author Year Sampling methods Sample size Age-range Age-categories Sample size per age-category
Ayabakan [15] 2003 REF, V, O 72 3 d - 16 y 4 18
Boettler [45] 2005 U 129 1 d - 16.9 y 1 129
Bonatto [9] 2006 REF 595 1 m - 144 m (Data presented according to BSA)
Cantinotti [59] 2013 A review containing nomograms
Cui [16] 2008 REF 593 1 d - 18 y 1 593
Daubeney [17] 1999 REF, U 125 1 m - 207 m (Regression equations and Nomograms)
Eidem [36] 1998 V 152 3 y - 18 y 1 152
Eidem [18] 2004 REF 325 1 d - 18 y 5 55 - 81
Frommelt [19] 2002 REF 141 3 d - 18 y 2 27; 114
Goebel [37] 2006 V 45 5 y – 23 y 1 45
Gutgesell [20] 1991 U 70 1 d – 18 y (Data presented according to BSA)
Hanseus [46] 1988 U 120 3 d – 15.5 y (Regression equations and Nomograms)
Harada [21] 2000 REF 48 7 d - 18 y 1 48
Hershenson [60] 2010 U 16 5.8 ± 1.7 y 1 16
Hui [44] 2010 O 103 3 - 18 yrs 4 19 - 29
Ichida [38] 1987 O, V 173 0 d – 15 y 7 8 - 21
Innelli [22] 2009 REF, V 40 10 y - 19 y 1 40
Ishii [8] 2000 REF 150 30 d - 18 y 1 150
Jin [23] 1997 REF 108 7 d - 17 y 5 12 - 29
Kampmann [14] 2000 REF, V 2036 1 d - 18 y (Data presented according to BSA / weight)
Kapusta [47] 2000 V 160 4 y - 17.9 y 1 160
King [24] 1985 REF 103 1 d – 15 y (Data presented according to BSA)
Koestenberger [26] 2009 REF 640 1 d - 18 y 22 18 - 47
Koestenberger [25] 2012 REF 860 1 m - 18 y 29 8 - 83
(Graphically according to age and BSA)
Kutty [27] 2013 REF 153 <1 - 20 y 5 21 - 24
(Contour plots as a function of age)
Lange [48] 1983 U 185 Birth - 15 y (Data presented according to BSA / weight)
Lester [39] 1987 V 202 25 d - 23 y (Data presented according to BSA)
Matsui [49] 2007 U 22 1.6 - 10.8 y 1 22
McQuillan [43] 2001 O 856 < 20 y 1 856
Moiduddin [13] 2010 O 13 5.7 y ± 1.8 y 1 13
Mori [50] 2004 U 396 Birth - 19 y 3 130 - 135
Norgard [51] 1992 U 15 6 y - 16 y 1 15
Nunez-Gil [28] 2011 REF 405 0 d - 18 yrs 9 15 - 77
(Graphically according to weight, height and BS
Pettersen [29] 2008 REF 782 1 day - 18 y (Data presented according to BSA)
Rafeiyian [30] 2005 REF 100 1 m - 15 y 4 9 - 46
Roberson [31] 2007 REF 634 1 d - 18 y (Data presented according to BSA)
Roberson [53] 2007 U 308 1 d - 18 y 6 41 - 77
Sarnani [32] 2009 U 179 0.02 m - 19 y 1 179
Seguela [33] 2012 REF 50 2 m - 18 y 1 50
Shedeed [40] 2010 V 60 5 - 15 y 1 60
Singh [41] 1994 V 78 2 m - 50 y 4 7 - 47
Stines [54] 2011 U 16 5.7 ± 1.7 y 1 16
Suleymanoglu [6] 2007 REF 213 15 d - 15 y (According to weight and graphically for age)
Van der Hulst [55] 2011 U 123 1 m - 18 y 5 (Not presented in tables)
Vignola [12] 1977 V 17 3 y - 17 y 1 17
Weidemann [56] 2002 U 33 4 - 16 y 1 33
Wessel [57] 1985 U 30 (Children – ages not stated) (Data presented according to weight)
Yusuoka [34] 1999 REF 99 30(TDI) 7 d - 22 y (Data presented graphically according to age)
Zhendong [58] 1998 U 88 3 y - 12 y 2 41; 47
Zilberman [35] 2005 REF 748 Birth - 18 y (Data presented according to BSA)
  1. REF, referred to exclude cardiac disease; V, volunteers; O, other; d, day(s); y, year(s); U, unknown; m, month(s); BSA, body surface area; BS, body surface; TDI, tissue Doppler imaging.