Skip to main content

Table 6 Published reference data of right ventricular function by tissue Doppler and strain

From: Reference intervals for the echocardiographic measurements of the right heart in children and adolescents: a systematic review

Measurement View Sample volume Boettler[45] Cantenotti[59] Cui[16] Eidem[36] Eidem[18] Frommelt[19] Goebel[37] Harada[21] Hershenson[60] Hui[44] Innelli[22] Kapusta[47] Koestenberger[25] Kutty[27] Matsui[49] Moiduddin[13] Mori[50] Rafeiyian[30] Roberson[31] Shedeed[40] Stines[45] Van der Hulst[55] Weidemann[56]
RV dyssynchrony/delay           x x             x   
RV Tissue displacement         x          x         
Tissue Doppler velocites and time-intervals
Sa; Ea; Aa; Ea: Aa; Aa: Ea A4C TV annulus   x    x x x x x   x x x     x x x x x x   x
Sa; Ea; Aa; Ea: Aa; Ea: Sa PLAX RV anterior wall             x             
Sa PSAX RV outflow tract                       x   
Isovolumic times    x x x x x     x     x x   x x x     
Deceleration time                x    x       
Systolic and diastolic times x   x                 x      
Myocardial performance index   x x       x        x    x x     
E (pulsed Doppler): Ea ratio   x    x     x   x       x        
Strain
Ss, Se, Sa A4C RV free wall x                x        x  
RV inflow SC RAO RV inferior wall                x          
RV outflow SC RAO RV free wall                x          
Pulmonary annulus SC RAO RV free wall                x          
Ss, Se, Sa A2C RV inferior wall                        x  
Se and Sa duration   RV free wall x                        
% RV Strain        x          x         
RV Time to peak strain                 x       x   
Strain rate
Right atrial strain               x           
RV strain A4C RV free wall x       x          x        x  
RV strain A2C RV inferior wall                        x  
  1. RV, right ventricle; Sa, peak systolic velocity; Ea, early diastolic velocity; Aa, late diastolic velocity; A4C, apical four-chamber; TV, tricuspid valve; PLAX, parasternal long-axis; PSAX, parasternal short-axis; E, early diastolic velocity by pulsed Doppler; Ea, tissue Doppler early diastolic myocardial velocity; Ss, peak systolic strain; Se, peak early diastolic strain; Sa, late diastolic peak strain; SC RAO, subcostal right anterior oblique; A2C, apical two-chamber.