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Table 1 Classification of mitral regurgitation by mechanism and acuity

From: Echocardiographic assessment of ischemic mitral regurgitation

  Primary (“Organic”) Secondary (“Functional”)
Acute Papillary muscle ischemia Acute ischemic LV dilatation
Ruptured papillary muscle (trauma, infarction)
Flail mitral valve leaflet
Ruptured chordae tendinae
Endocarditis (leaflet perforation)
Chronic Flail mitral valve leaflet Chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR)
Mitral valve prolapse Non-ischemic LV dilatation (failure of leaflets to coapt)
Ruptured chordae tendinae Non-ischemic LV systolic dysfunction
Degeneration (myxomatous, endocarditis, calcification) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Rheumatic Right ventricular pacing
Congenital Aortic insufficiency [1]