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Table 5 Ranges of selected quantitative differences measured between symmetric versus asymmetric CIMR in humans

From: Echocardiographic assessment of ischemic mitral regurgitation

  Normal/No MR Symmetric CIMR Asymmetric CIMR
Tethering Angles    
α 25° 25°-45° 25°-45°
β 36° 30°-45° 40°-60°
Ratio (β:α) 1.4 1.2-1.9 1.6-3.0
Tenting    
Tenting height   9.3 mm 7.7 mm
Tenting area 0.6 cm2-0.8 cm2 3.0 cm2-3.2 cm2 4.0 cm2-4.1 cm2
Tenting volume 2.3 mL 4.4 mL-5.5 mL 2.5 mL-4.3 mL
PM Anatomy    
Posterior displacement: ALPM 1.7 cm 3.3 cm 2.5 cm
Posterior displacement: PMPM 1.6 cm 3.1 cm 3.0 cm
Lateral displacement: ALPM 1.2 cm 2.2 cm 2.0 cm
Lateral displacement: PMPM 1.2 cm 2.0 cm 2.3 cm
Apical displacement: ALPM 2.4 cm 3.0 cm 2.9 cm
Apical displacement: PMPM 2.4 cm-2.5 cm 3.1 cm-3.8 cm 3.0 cm
Interpapillary distance 2.1 cm-2.5 cm 3.5 cm-3.8 cm 3.0 cm
Annulus    
Height 6-8 cm 8.5 mm 10.3 mm
Area 6.4 cm2 11.1 cm2-12.3 cm2 9.0 cm2-10.8 cm2
Systolic area change 56% 13.9% 30.7%
Left Ventricle    
Ejection fraction 55-70% 37%-41% 44%-44%
EDV (index) (35-75 mL/m2) 210 mL-228 mL (115 mL/m2) 184 mL-195 mL (101 mL/m2)
ESV (index) (12-30 mL/m2) 135 mL-152 mL (69 mL/m2) 102 mL-107 mL (59 mL/m2)
Sphericity Index 0.43 0.58-0.66 0.56-0.56
Wall motion score index 1.0 1.6-2.0 1.2-1.8
  1. Data from: Zeng et al. [12, 22]; Gelsomino et al. [23]; Veronesi et al. [19]; Agricola et al. [7].