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Table 3 Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment

From: Structural and functional changes in maternal left ventricle during pregnancy: a three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography study

Variable Controls Trimester 1 Trimester 2 Trimester 3 Postpartum
  - (14.1 ± 1.6)wk (25.5 ± 2.6)wk (37.8 ± 2.4)wk (7.8 ± 2.4)mo
LV EDV(ml) 76.14 ± 21.20 81.39 ± 19.54 83.78 ± 14.58 87.72 ± 17.18* 82.77 ± 16.85
LV ESV(ml) 32.00 ± 7.29 33.91 ± 6.16 36.30 ± 7.96* 39.67 ± 7.98* 34.08 ± 8.32
LVEDVi(ml/m2) 44.06 ± 17.44 41.93 ± 18.61 49.33 ± 14.49 51.67 ± 12.65* 46.63 ± 16.49
3D EF(%) 60.14 ± 4.16 59.48 ± 5.77 58.00 ± 4.06 57.07 ± 4.62* 59.16 ± 6.12
3D CI(l · min−1 · m−2) 2.26 ± 0.93 2.17 ± 1.02 2.49 ± 1.09 2.54 ± 1.17* 2.27 ± 1.43
3D SVI(ml/m2) 27.79 ± 9.96 27.51 ± 10.36 29.58 ± 9.62 31.37 ± 1.73 28.08 ± 11.02
LVMi (g/m2) 59.25 ± 18.00 62.57 ± 24.81 66.37 ± 16.74 71.23 ± 14.46* 63.14 ± 16.08
Sphericity index 0.27 ± 0.04 0.31 ± 0.07* 0.32 ± 0.05*§ 0.32 ± 0.06* 0.28 ± 0.06
LA index (ml/m2) 11.0 ± 2.5 12.3 ± 4.2 13.1 ± 3.3*§ 14.2 ± 4.3* 11.2 ± 3.3
GLS (%) 20.29 ± 2.97 21.32 ± 2.61 20.30 ± 2.66 18.85 ± 2.99* 20.82 ± 2.31
GCS (%) 18.71 ± 3.93 18.91 ± 3.70 18.05 ± 2.99 16.65 ± 2.99* 18.91 ± 4.07
GAS (%) 33.71 ± 5.28 34.77 ± 4.21 33.09 ± 3.56 31.10 ± 4.53* 34.68 ± 4.81
GRS (%) 56.36 ± 12.15 58.32 ± 9.88 55.36 ± 8.47 50.23 ± 10.12* 57.62 ± 10.10
  1. Data are given as mean ± SD, LVEDV indicates left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVEDVi, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index; EF, ejection fraction; CI, cardiac index; SVI, stroke volume index; LVMi, left ventricular mass index; LA index, left atrial volume index; GLS, global longitudinal strain; GCS, global circumferential strain; GAS, global area strain; GRS, global radial strain.
  2. *P < 0.05 vs. Controls; P < 0.05 vs. Trimester 1; P < 0.05 vs. Trimester 3; §P < 0.05 vs. Postpartum.