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Table 3 Shortcut to noninvasive testing in preoperative if any two factors are present

From: Perioperative risk stratification in non cardiac surgery: role of pharmacological stress echocardiography

1. Intermediate clinical predictors are present (Canadian class 1 or 2 angina, prior MI based on history or pathologic Q waves, compensated or prior heart failure, diabetes, or renal insufficiency)
2. Poor functional capacity (less than 4 METs)
3. High surgical risk procedure (aortic repair or peripheral vascular surgery; prolonged surgical procedures with large fluid shifts or blood loss)