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Figure 8 | Cardiovascular Ultrasound

Figure 8

From: Pacing stress echocardiography

Figure 8

Methodology of the force-frequency curve with pacemaker stress echo in normal subject. On the left, from upper to lower rows: heart rate from external programming of permanent pacemaker (first row); systolic blood pressure by cuff sphygmomanometar (second row); left ventricular end-systolic apical four (4C) and the two (2C) chamber view (third and fourth row); end-systolic volume calculated with biplane Simpson method (fifth row). An increased heart rate is accompanied by an increased systolic pressure with smaller end-systolic volumes (normal up sloping FFR).

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