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Figure 9 | Cardiovascular Ultrasound

Figure 9

From: Pacing stress echocardiography

Figure 9

Methodology of the force-frequency curve with pacemaker stress echo in subject with post MI dilated cardiomyopathy and depressed baseline left ventricular function (EF = 30%). On the left, from upper to lower rows: heart rate from external programming of permanent pacemaker (first row); systolic blood pressure by cuff sphygmomanometar (second row); left ventricular end-systolic apical four (4C) and the two (2C) chamber view (third and fourth row); end-systolic volume calculated with biplane Simpson method (fifth row). An increased heart rate at peak pacing stress is accompanied by no change in end-systolic volumes (abnormal flat-biphasic FFR).

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