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Table 1 Doppler echocardiographic patterns of current echocardiographic tools in relation to the grading of LV diastolic dysfunction

From: Diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure: diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects

Parameter Normal pattern Pattern of abnormal relaxation (Grade I) Pseudonormal pattern (Grade II) Restrictive patterns (Grades III-IV)
E/A >1 <1 1 – 2 ≥2
DT (ms) 160 – 210 >220 150 – 200 <150
IVRT (ms) 70 – 90 >95 60 – 95 <60
S/D 1.3 – 1.5 1.6 – 2.0 <1 0.40 – 0.60
AR (m/sec) 0.22 – 0.32 0.21 – 0.28 ≥0.35 ≥0.25
Em (cm/sec) >8 <8 <8 <5
Vp (cm/sec) >55 <45 <45 <35
E/Em < 8    > 16
E/Vp     > 2.5
  1. AR = Atrial retrograde velocity, DT = Deceleration time, E/A = Transmitral E/A ratio, E/Em = Transmitral early diastolic velocity to myocardial early diastolic velocity of lateral mitral annulus by Tissue Doppler, Em = myocardial early diastolic velocity by Tissue Doppler at lateral mitral annulus, IVRT = Isovolumic relaxation time, = Systolic velocity to diastolic velocity ratio by pulmonary veins assessment, Vp = Velocity propagation