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Table 1 Baseline demographics of 88 asymptomatic carotid stenosis and 81 diabetic nephropathy study subjects.

From: Carotid ultrasound phenotypes in vulnerable populations

  Asymptomatic Stenosis All Male Female Diabetic Nephropathy All Male Female
Discrete Traits       
No. 88 63 24 82 55 27
Female 27.3%    32.9%   
Current Smoking 19.3% 23.4%t 8.3%t 13.4% 16.4% 7.4%
Type 1 Diabetes** 0.0 0 0 17.1% 14.5% 22.2%
Type 2 Diabetes** 17.0% 18.8% 12.5% 82.9% 85.5% 77.8%
Cholesterol Lowering Treatment n(%) 80.5 (82) 83.1 73.9 70.7   
Hypertension Treatment n (%) 92.7 (82) 91.5 95.7 98.8   
≥ 1 Ulceration (%)** 51.1 51.6 50.0 11.0 10.0 11.1
Quantitative Traits (mean+/- SD       
Age (y)** 72.8 ± 8.6 73.1+/-8.2 72.0+/-9.6 60.9 ± 11.2 61.2+/-11.2 60.3+/-11.4
BMI (kg/m2)** 26.4 ± 4.0 (81) 26.6 +/-3.6 26.0+/-5.0 33.2 ± 5.9 32.6+/-5.6 34.3+/- 6.6
Total Chol (mmol/L)** 4.38 ± 0.94 4.27+/-0.96 4.64+/-0.85 4.95 ± 1.56 (80) 4.65+/-1.34t 5.57+/-1.81t
Triglycerides (mM)** 1.46 ± 0.57 1.40+/-0.56 1.64+/-0.56 2.64 ± 1.81 (78) 2.43+/-1.36 3.06+/-2.47
Framingham Score (%)** 8.3 ± 4.4 8.0 +/-4.1 9.3+/-5.2 19.6 ± 11.4 (78) 21.3+-12.6t 16.2+7.9t
Carotid IMT (mm) ND ND ND 0.87 ± 0.17 0.88+/-0.15 0.84+/-0.20
Carotid TPA (cm2)** 3.4 ± 1.8 3.8+/-1.8** 2.4+/-1.5** 1.3 ± 1.2 1.4+/-1.0 1.3+/-1.5
Carotid TPV (mm3)** 690 ± 330 790+/-330** 420+/-150** 160 ± 170 180+/-170 120+/-150
  1. ** difference is significant at the 0.01 level; t difference is significant at 0.05 level IMT, mean carotid intima-media thickness of measured right and left carotid IMT; TPV, total volume of carotid plaque burden: sum of plaque volume from right and left carotid; TPA, total plaque area ; Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes refers to physician-diagnosed diabetes; Lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication history was retrieved from physician chart; The numbers in brackets indicate the sample size for which the given trait was calculated due to unavailable data.