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Figure 3 | Cardiovascular Ultrasound

Figure 3

From: Current clinical applications of spectral tissue Doppler echocardiography (E/E' ratio) as a noninvasive surrogate for left ventricular diastolic pressures in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function

Figure 3

Proposition for a simplified diagnostic algorithm in the emergency diagnosis of acute congestive heart failure on admission, before tailored therapy, in patients presenting with acute dyspnea; adapted from references [5,89,91,94,98-102]. AF: atrial fibrillation; BNP: B-type natriuretic peptide; E: peak E mitral velocity; E': peak early diastolic velocity by spectral tissue Doppler at the septal side of mitral annulus; HF: heart failure; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; SR: sinus rhythm. The clinical judgment of heart failure is based on the presence of prior history of heart failure and/or radiographic pulmonary edema. *: evidence of a restrictive mitral filling pattern reinforces the likelihood of acute congestive HF.

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