Skip to main content

Table 1 Main ultrasound techniques, parameters and reference values for detection of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony and prediction of LV reverse remodeling.

From: Doppler echocardiography and myocardial dyssynchrony: a practical update of old and new ultrasound technologies

Technique Parameter Authors Cut-off point
M-mode SPWMD Pitzalis et al, J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 > 130 ms
M-mode and PW Doppler LWPSD Sassone et al, Am J Cardiol 2007 > 1
PW Tissue Doppler Diff. of Ts between LV segments Bax JJ et al, J Am Coll Cardiol 2004 > 65 ms
TVI Ts-SD Yu et al, Am J Cardiol 2003 > 32.6 ms
TSI Ts-SD Yu et al, J Am Coll Cardiol 2005 > 34.4 ms
SRI TPS-SD Mele et al, Eur Heart J 2006 > 60 ms
SRI ExcT Porciani MC et al, Eur Heart J 2006 > 760 ms
2D radial strain Time diff. in peak septal wall-to-posterior wall strain Suffoletto et al, Circulation 2006 ≥ 130 ms
3D echo Triplane Ts-SD Van der Veire NR et al, Am J Cardiol 2007 ≥ 35.8 *
  1. * acute (48 hours after CRT) response
  2. CW = Continuous wave, ExcT = Sum of time exceeding aortic valve closure, IVMD = Inter-ventricular mechanical delay, LV PEP = Left ventricular pre-ejection period, LWPSD = Lateral wall post-systolic displacement, PW = pulse wave, SPWMD = Septal-to-posterior wall motion delay, SRI = Strain rate imaging, TSI = Tissue synchronization imaging, TVI = Tissue velocity imaging, Ts-SD = Standard deviation of time to peak Sm, TPS-SD = Standard deviation of time to peak strain