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Table 3 Coefficients of variation from CIMT reproducibility studies

From: Carotid intima-medial thickness measured on multiple ultrasound frames: evaluation of a DICOM-based software system

   Coefficient of Variation
Study n Inter-sonographer Intra-sonographer Inter-observer Intra-observer
Manual Measurement (callipers on ultrasound screen)
Salonena [27] 10 10.5 5.4 - -
Bonithon-Koppb [35] 81 - - 9.0 -
Schillacic [36] 128 - - 7.3 5.0
Raitakari [37] 60/113 - 6.4 5.2 -
Kobayashi [38] 12 - 4.2 - -
Software 1 (arterial interfaces traced manually by observer)
Wendelhag [39] 74 10.2 - - -
Botsb [40] 80 8.1 - 4.5 -
Persson [41] 43 11.4 8.0 - -
Touboulb [16] 14 12.5 8.6 - -
Rileya, b, c [42] 453 7.6 6.1 6.8 3.8
Wendelhag [14, 43] 50 - 10.6 2.8 3.8
Liang [44] 50 - 2.8 - -
Nowak [45] - - 9.0 - -
Baldassarre [46] 22 - 4.1 - -
Baldassarred [46] 22 - 2.1 - -
Becker [47] 7 - 11.0 - -
Orenb, c [48] 21 5.4 - - -
Software 2 (automated edge-detection)
Selzer [18] 8 3.9 4.3 - -
Blankenhorn [49] 20 - - 3.1 3.0
Gariepy [17] 11 - 4.3 - -
Adams [20] 35/100 6.0 - 2.5 -
Wendelhag [14] 50 - - 1.4 -
Stensland-Bugge [26] 75 9.0 5.9 - 1.3
McQuillan [22] 30 5.9 2.9 - -
Selzer [28] 24 - 3.5   
Kennedyc [50] 144 - - 6.8 6.7
Fathi [51] 288 - - - 5.0
Gepner [12]e 40 - - - 3.1
Gepner [12]f 40 - - - 7.8
de Bree [52] 80 6.5 - - -
Potter 30 6.8 5.7 - 2.1
Software 3 (current study)
Potterg 30 6.5 6.8 3.5 2.4
Potterh 30 7.0 6.2 5.1 1.5
  1. CV indicates co-efficient of variation; CIMT, carotid intima-media thickness; CVD, cardiovascular disease; CCA, common carotid artery.
  2. a Maximum rather than mean CCA used for reproducibility study
  3. b CVs calculated from reported data (SD of absolute difference/mean CIMT *100)
  4. cCIMT calculated as average of near and far wall of CCA
  5. d Digital ultrasound system
  6. eExperienced observer
  7. fNovice observer
  8. gSix-frame protocol
  9. hSixty frame measurement protocol