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Table 2 Exercise and clinical data on the study groups. Values are means (SE).

From: Exercise training does not improve myocardial diastolic tissue velocities in Type 2 diabetes

Group   Control (n = 24) Exercise (n = 24) p value
Variable     
VO2max 0 mo 32.6 (1.1) 32.0 (1.1)  
(ml/kg/min) 12 mo 31.5 (0.6) 34.7 (0.6)  
  Net diff   3.2  
  95% CI   1.4 to 5.0 0.001
Weight 0 mo 94.1 (2.2) 90.0 2.2)  
(kg) 12 mo 92.4 (0.7) 91.4 (0.7)  
  Net diff   -1.4  
  95% CI   -2.8 to 0.1 0.072
Sit-up 0 mo 14.6 (9.6) 12.7 (7.3)  
(times) 12 mo 14.7 (1.2) 18.3 (1.2)  
  Net diff   6.7  
  95% CI   4.3 to 9.0 < 0.001
HBA1c 0 mo 8.0 (1.3) 8.2 (2.1)  
(%) 12 mo 8.4 (0.2) 7.5 (0.2)  
  Net diff   -0.9  
  95% CI   -1.6 to -0.3 0.006
Insulin 0 mo 13.6 (2.3) 16.7 (2.3)  
(mmol/l) 12 mo 13.6 (1.3) 11.7 (1.3)  
  Net diff   -1.9  
  95% CI   -5.6 to 1.8 0.31
Cholesterol 0 mo 4.85 (.18) 4.63 (.18)  
(mmol/l) 12 mo 4.89 (.11) 4.61 (.11)  
  Net diff   -0.28  
  95% CI   -.58 to 0.03 0.07
HDL 0 mo 1.13 (.05) 1.09 (.05)  
(mmol/l) 12 mo 1.18 (.03) 1.12 (.03)  
  Net diff   -0.06  
  95% CI   -.13 to .02 0.14
LDL 0 mo 3.24 (.17) 3.15 (.17)  
(mmol/l) 12 mo 3.17 (.10) 3.10 (.10)  
  Net diff   -0.7  
  95% CI   -.35 to .22 0.68
Triglycerides 0 mo 1.83 (.15) 1.70 (.15)  
(mmol/l) 12 mo 1.80 (.13) 1.70 (.13)  
  Net diff   -0.09  
  95% CI   -.45 to 0.26 0.60
SBP 0 mo 146 (15) 144 (17)  
(mmHg) 12 mo 144 (1.9) 138 (1.9)  
  Net diff   -5.5  
  95% CI   -10.8 to 0.2 0.041
E (m/s) 0 mo 0.69 (.03) 0.64 (.03)  
  12 mo 0.70 (.03) 0.71 (.03)  
  Net diff   .01  
  95% CI   -.07 to .09 0.77
A (m/s) 0 mo 0.66 (.03) 0.68 (.03)  
  12 mo 0.69 (.02) 0.71 (.02)  
  Net diff   .02  
  95% CI   -.04 to .09 0.46
  1. VO2max = maximal oxygen consumption; 0 mo/12 mo = measurements at baseline and after 12 months of intervention; Net diff. = difference of change compared to the control group (analysis of covariance); 95% CI = 95% confidence interval for the net difference; Weight = body weight; Sit-up = sit-up test, number of repetitions; HBA1c = glycated hemoglobin; Insulin = serum insulin; Cholesterol = total cholesterol; HDL = high-density cholesterol; LDL = low-density cholestrol; Triglycerides = blood triglyceride concentration; SBP = systolic blood pressure; E = mitral inflow early diastolic velocity; A = mitral inflow late diastolic velocity.