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Table 1 Characteristics of all participants and of subsets with and without carotid lesions at baseline, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Limited Access Data, 1987–89.

From: B-mode ultrasound common carotid artery intima-media thickness and external diameter: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with carotid atherosclerosis in a large population sample

   Full Study Carotid Lesions:  
   Sample Present Absent  
   N = 7956 N = 2955 N = 5001 p-value
Age, years (mean (SD)) 54.0 (5.7) 55.7 (5.5) 53.0 (5.6) <0.0001
Male Gender (%) 43.4 52 38.3 <0.0001
Black race (%) 22.6 21.1 23.4 0.02
Smoker (%) Current 25.6 31.7 21.9 <0.0001
  Former 31.4 34.2 29.8  
  Never 43.0 34.2 48.3  
Cigarette years* (mean (SD)) 660 (418) 735 (449) 596 (379) <0.0001
Drinker (%) Current 58.5 58.6 58.4 0.0002
  Former 17.3 19.3 16.1  
  Never 24.2 22.0 25.4  
Ethanol, grams/week (mean (SD)) 72 (111) 79 (125) 60 (102) <0.0001
Diabetes (%) 8.8 10.3 7.9 0.0002
Hypertension medication (%) 24.6 36.5 26.8 <0.0001
Cholesterol medication (%) 2.8 3.4 2.4 0.011
Body Mass Index (mean (SD)) 26.7 (4.6) 26.5 (4.4) 26.8 (4.7) 0.0032
Systolic BP, mm Hg (mean (SD)) 120 (18) 123 (19) 118 (17) <0.0001
Diastolic BP, mm Hg (mean (SD)) 72.7 (10.9) 73.0 (11.0) 72.6 (10.9) 0.146
LDL-C, mmol/L (mean (SD)) 3.53 (1.00) 3.69 (0.98) 3.44 (1.01) <0.0001
HDL-C, mmol/L (mean (SD)) 1.38 (0.45) 1.32 (0.43) 1.41 (0.46) <0.0001
Fibrinogen, mg/dL (mean (SD)) 298 (63) 305 (64) 294 (62) <0.0001
White blood count, 1000s/μL (mean (SD)) 6.0 (1.9) 6.3 (2.0) 5.9 (1.8) <0.0001
Blood glucose, mg/dL (mean (SD)) 105 (33) 107 (36) 104 (31) <0.0001
Sport index (mean (SD)) 2.47 (0.80) 2.48 (0.79) 2.47 (0.81) 0.34
Standing height, cm (mean (SE)) 168.5 (0.1) 169 (0.11) 169.6 (0.09) <0.0001
RCCA measures (mean (SE)) §     
   Intima-medial thickness (mm) 0.65 (0.002) 0.71 (0.003) 0.63 (0.002) <0.0001
   Diameter (mm) 7.72 (0.01) 7.94 (0.01) 7.65 (0.01) <0.0001
   Circular wall area (mm2) 14.6 (0.05) 16.2 (0.08) 13.9 (0.06) <0.0001
   Elliptical wall area (mm2) 20.9 (0.06) 22.8 (0.09) 20.1 (0.07) <0.0001
  1. BP = blood pressure.
  2. IMT = intima-media thickness.
  3. RCCA = right common carotid artery.
  4. SD = standard deviation.
  5. SE = standard error.
  6. N = Maximum number possible. Lower numbers were available for some variables because of missing information.
  7. * Among current smokers.
  8. Among current drinkers.
  9. Height is adjusted for gender in the carotid lesion subsets.
  10. § RCCA measures are adjusted for height and gender in the carotid lesion subsets.