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Table 3 Hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals* for progression to carotid atherosclerotic lesions associated with each standard deviation increment of B-mode ultrasound right common carotid artery (RCCA) measures, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Limited Access Data (ARICLAD), 1987–1998.

From: B-mode ultrasound common carotid artery intima-media thickness and external diameter: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with carotid atherosclerosis in a large population sample

   Hazards Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals)*
RCCA Measure Adjustment Level Full Sample Men Women
   N = 4845 N = 1850 N = 2995
IMT Model 1 1.43 (1.33–1.53) 1.38 (1.24–1.53) 1.40 (1.27–1.54)
  Model 2 1.30 (1.20–1.40) 1.29 (1.16–1.44) 1.30 (1.18–1.44)
  Model 3 1.23 (1.14–1.32) 1.23 (1.10–1.37) 1.23 (1.12–1.36)
  Model 4 1.23 (1.14–1.32) 1.26 (1.13–1.41) 1.22 (1.11–1.35)
  Restricted 1.19 (1.11–1.28) 1.20 (1.08–1.36) 1.20 (1.09–1.32)
Diameter Model 1 1.37 (1.28–1.46) 1.27 (1.14–1.40) 1.36 (1.23–1.50)
  Model 2 1.25 (1.17–1.35) 1.23 (1.11–1.36) 1.29 (1.16–1.42)
  Model 3 1.17 (1.08–1.25) 1.16 (1.05–1.29) 1.17 (1.06–1.30)
  Model 4 1.16 (1.08–1.25) 1.16 (1.04–1.30) 1.17 (1.05–1.29)
  Restricted 1.14 (1.05–1.23) 1.12 (1.00–1.25) 1.16 (1.05–1.29)
Wall area Model 1 1.50 (1.40–1.61) 1.40 (1.27–1.56) 1.50 (1.36–1.66)
  Model 2 1.36 (1.26–1.47) 1.32 (1.19–1.47) 1.41 (1.26–1.57)
  Model 3 1.26 (1.17–1.36) 1.25 (1.12–1.39) 1.29 (1.16–1.43)
  Model 4 1.26 (1.17–1.36) 1.27 (1.14–1.42) 1.28 (1.15–1.42)
  Restricted 1.22 (1.13–1.32) 1.21 (1.08–1.36) 1.26 (1.13–1.40)
  Model 1    
IMT   1.29 (1.20–1.39) 1.31 (1.17–1.46) 1.30 (1.17–1.44)
Diameter   1.25 (1.17–1.34) 1.16 (1.04–1.29) 1.23 (1.11–1.36)
  Model 2    
IMT   1.23 (1.14–1.33) 1.23 (1.10–1.38) 1.23 (1.11–1.37)
Diameter   1.17 (1.09–1.27) 1.15 (1.03–1.28) 1.20 (1.08–1.34)
  Model 3    
IMT   1.19 (1.10–1.28) 1.19 (1.07–1.33) 1.20 (1.08–1.32)
Diameter   1.11 (1.03–1.19) 1.11 (0.99–1.23) 1.11 (0.99–1.23)
  Model 4    
IMT   1.19 (1.11–1.29) 1.23 (1.09–1.38) 1.19 (1.07–1.31)
Diameter   1.10 (1.02–1.19) 1.10 (0.98–1.23) 1.11 (0.99–1.23)
  Restricted    
IMT   1.16 (1.08–1.25) 1.18 (1.05–1.33) 1.17 (1.05–1.29)
Diameter   1.09 (1.01–1.18) 1.07 (0.95–1.20) 1.11 (1.00–1.24)
  1. IMT = intima-media thickness.
  2. *Hazards ratio for carotid atherosclerosis progression associated with each standard deviation (SD) increment of the vascular measure(s) (IMT, diameter, calculated circular wall area, or IMT and diameter) estimated using SAS LIFEREG procedure using interval censoring.
  3. Model 1 includes the vascular measure(s) only; Model 2 adds age, race, sex, and height; Model 3 includes age, (gender only in full data set), cigarette years of smoking, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, LDL-cholesterol, and white blood count. Model 4 includes all 20 covariates and was limited to the subset with complete data (total n = 4791; n = 1823 for men, and n = 2968 for women).
  4. Restricted Model 4 estimates were made in a subset (total n = 4593; n = 1736 for men, and n = 2857 for women) that excluded persons who developed plaques/shadowing in the RCCA by the first follow-up examination.