In the upper left panel a pericardial view (frontal) showing the edge of both atria which are preserved for conventional surgical technique (Shumway technique): possibility of interatrial ridge are dependent of the redundancy of donor as well as recipient residual tissue (arrows). In the upper right panel pericardial view (frontal) showing how the edge of both atria are removed for bicaval surgical technique: possibility of interatrial ridge are dependent of the redundancy of recipient septal residual tissue only (arrow). In the lower panel 2-D echocardiographic apical 4-chamber view showing left atrial enlargement and point of suture of a transplanted heart. Mod from Heart Transplantation – Churcill Livingstone – James K. Kirklin et al. 2002.