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Table 2 Main studies evaluating the accuracy of standard Doppler echocardiography in detecting AAR

From: Usefulness and limitations of transthoracic echocardiography in heart transplantation recipients

Authors N. of patients Method/Parameter Sensitivity Specificity
Desruennes M, J Am Coll Cardiol 1988 55 Standard Doppler, PHT decrease (20%) 88% 87%
Simmonds MB, Circulation 1992 30 Standard Doppler, superior vena caval SFFV ≤ 17 cm/s 100% 80%
Morocutti G, J Heart Lung Transplant 1995 18 Standard Doppler, PHT ≤ 55 ms PHT ≤ 60 ms 69% 62% 76% 83%
Mouly-Bandini A, Transpl Int 1996 23 Standard Doppler, IVRT decrease ≥ 20% 45% -
Angermann GE, Circulation 1997 52 M-mode and 2D parameters 40–55% 84–87%
Stengel SM, Heart 2001 141 Pulsed Tissue Doppler. Am of mitral annulus < 8.7 cm/s 82% 53%
Vivekananthan K, Am J Cardiol 2002 20 Standard Doppler, MPI 90% 90%
Sun JP, J Heart Lung Transplant 2005 223 183 Standard Doppler echo ≥ 2 among PE, IVRT > 90 ms, E/A > 1.7 post HT ≤ 6 months post HT > 6 months 57% 60% 54% 93%
  1. IVRT = isovolumic relaxation time, MPI = Myocardial performance index, PE = pericardial effusion, PHT = Mitral pressure half-time, SFFV = inferior vena caval systolic forward flow velocity.