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Table 1 Clinical and biochemical characteristics of controls and diabetic patients.

From: Myocardial involvement during the early course of type 2 diabetes mellitus: usefulness of Myocardial Performance Index

Parameters Diabetes mellitus (n. 22) Diabetes mellitus and hypertension (n. 23) Controls (n. 22)
Age (years) 52 ± 7 53 ± 8 53 ± 5
Obesity (%) 18 21 0
Hypertension (%) 0 100 0
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 14 22 0**
Smoking (%) 0 0 0
Family history of myocardial ischemia (%) 15 17 8
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127 ± 5§ 138 ± 14** 120 ± 14
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81 ± 7§§ 82 ± 9** 75 ± 7
Heart rate (bpm) 75 ± 7** 76 ± 10** 67 ± 8
Mean diabetes duration (months) 40 ± 18 36 ± 15 -
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 167 ± 36§§ 138 ± 25 87 ± 8
HbA1c (%) 7.7 ± 2.2 7.0 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 2.2
Oral hypoglycaemic agents (%) 77 74 0
Diet therapy (%) 23 26 0
Anti-hypertensive theraphy (%)    
   ACE-inhibitor 9 65 -
   Angiotensin receptor antagonist - 22 -
   Diuretics - 22 -
   Calcium channel blockers - 22 -
   Beta-blockers - 17 -
  1. **p < 0.01 diabetics vs controls; §p < 0.02 diabetic-normotensive patients vs diabetic-hypertensive patients; §§p < 0.03 diabetic-normotensive patients vs diabetic-hypertensive patients. HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin.