Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Benefit of warm water immersion on biventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure

Characteristics All enrolled
patients (n = 18)
Hydrotherapy group
(n = 12)
Aetiology (ICM/DCM/MV replacement) 13/4/1 11/2/0
Age, years 69 ± 8 69 ± 7
Gender (male/female) 13/5 8/4
NYHA (class I/II/III) 1/8/9 0/7/5
Duration of heart failure (years) 10 ± 7 11 ± 8
Weight (kg) 81 ± 15 83 ± 16
Height (cm) 175 ± 8 175 ± 9
Heart rate (beats/min) 63 ± 12 62 ± 12
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 132 ± 21 132 ± 19
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78 ± 8 79 ± 7
LVEF (%), supine position 40 ± 8 40 ± 7
LVEF (%), standing position 31 ± 9 32 ± 9
BNP (ng/L) 172 ± 155 169 ± 158
Peak oxygen uptake (mL/min/kg) 14.6 ± 4.5 14.0 ± 3.6
β blockers (%) 83 92
ACEI/ARB (%) 94 83
Diuretics (%) 78 75
Statins (%) 67 75
Digitalis (%) 11 8
  1. Data are mean ± SD
  2. ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker;
  3. DCM, dilated cardiomyopathy; ICM, ischemic cardiomyopathy; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MV, mitral valve; NYHA, New York Heart Association.
\