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Table 1 Comparison of respiratory changes in mitral, pulmonary vein, tricuspid, and hepatic vein flow in patients with constrictive pericarditis vs restrictive cardiomyopathy

From: Respiratory maneuvers in echocardiography: a review of clinical applications

Mitral inflow No respiration variation of mitral inflow E wave velocity, IVRT
E/A ratio >2, short DT, diastolic regurgitation
Inspiration: decreased inflow E wave velocity, prolonged IVRT
Expiration: opposite changes, short DT, diastolic regurgitation
Pulmonary vein Blunted S/D ratio (0.5), prominent and prolonged AR
No respiration variation, D wave
S/D ratio = 1, Inspiration: decreased pulmonary vein S and D waves
Expiration: opposite changes
Tricuspid inflow Mild respiratory variation of tricuspid inflow E wave velocity,
E/A ratio >2, TR peak velocity, no significant respiration change
Short DT with inspiration, diastolic regurgitation
Inspiration: increased tricuspid inflow E wave velocity, increased TR peak velocity
Expiration: opposite changes
Short DT, diastolic regurgitation
Hepatic veins Blunted S/D ratio, increased inspiratory reversals Inspiration: minimally increased hepatic veins S and D
Expiration: decreased diastolic flow/increased reversals
  1. E, early rapid filling wave; A, filling wave due to atrial contraction; IVRT, isovolumic relaxation time; DT, deceleration time; S, systolic flow; D, diastolic flow; TR, tricuspid regurgitation