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Table 2 Reference ranges of left atrial strain indices

From: Feasibility and reference values of left atrial longitudinal strain imaging by two-dimensional speckle tracking

Variable Mean ± SD 5–95° Percentile range
PALS (%)   
   Global 42.2 ± 6.1 32.2–53.2
   Four-chamber average 40.1 ± 7.9 29.0–53.6
   Two-chamber average 44.3 ± 6.0 35.2–52.7
TPLS (ms)   
   Global 368.0 ± 29.9 322.9–430.4
   Four-chamber average 364.2 ± 42.6 300.8–436.9
   Two-chamber average 367.4 ± 34.1 326.4–435.2
  1. Reference values of global, 4-chamber, and 2-chamber peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) and time to peak strain (TPLS) in the study population.