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Table 1 Clinical, echocardiographic and catheterization data of the study population (n = 36)

From: Left atrial longitudinal strain by speckle tracking echocardiography correlates well with left ventricular filling pressures in patients with heart failure

  PCWP <18 mmHg
(n = 15)
PCWP ≥18 mmHg
(n = 21)
p Value
Clinical data    
Age 57.7 ± 8.1 57.3 ± 8.6 0.77
Gender (% female) 43.2 42.3 0.65
Body surface area (m2) 1.95 ± 0.2 1.94 ± 0.2 0.70
Hypertension 20 (89%) 12 (88%) 0.66
Diabetes mellitus 8 (36%) 5 (35%) 0.81
Hypercholesterolemia 17 (77%) 10 (75%) 0.51
Current smoker 2 (9%) 2 (12%) 0.44
Ischemic cause (%) 81% 82% 0.65
CRT-D 4 (28.6%) 7 (33.3%) 0.21
Medical therapy    
Ace-inhibitors or ARB 10 (66.6%) 14 (66.6%) 0.81
Beta-blockers 8 (53.3%) 11 (52.3%) 0.66
Spironolactone 7 (46.7%) 9 (42.8%) 0.22
Loop diuretics 13 (86.7%) 18 (85.7) 0.44
Statins 9 (60.0%) 14 (66.7%) 0.32
Echocardiographic data    
Left atrial area (cm2) 26.9 ± 5.9 33.1 ± 6.6 0.02
Left atrial volume indexed (ml/m2) 30.2 ± 9 41.1 ± 10.1 0.009
End-diastolic LV diameter (mm) 57.3 ± 8.3 63.0 ± 8.0 0.01
LV mass index (g/m2) 116.6 ± 31.3 118.3 ± 33.5 0.21
LV Ejection Fraction (%) 26.5 ± 3.5 25.7 ± 4.3 0.15
Mitral E (cm/s) 82.6 ± 33 99.4 ± 46 <0.001
Mitral E/A ratio 2.19 ± 1.1 3.66 ± 1.3 <0.001
Sm (cm/s) 5.0 ± 1.1 5.0 ± 1.2 0.81
Em (cm/s) 6.6 ± 1.8 6.2 ± 1.8 0.24
E/Em (cm/s) 12.6 ± 6.4 15.9 ± 7.9 0.01
Global PALS (%) 16.9 ± 4.0 9.8 ± 4.2 <0.001
4-chamber PALS (%) 14.3 ± 3.8 8.0 ± 3.6 <0.001
2-chamber PALS (%) 18.0 ± 4.6 11.2 ± 4.5 <0.001
Global TPLS (ms) 445 ± 81 410 ± 78 0.09
Catheterization data    
Heart rate (bpm) 73.3 ± 15.3 76.0 ± 15.1 0.20
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 118 ± 19 116 ± 21 0.28
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79 ± 11 76 ± 13 0.27
Mean PAP (mmHg) 21.8 ± 7.8 32.1 ± 9.9 <0.001
PCWP (mmHg) 13.1 ± 5.1 23.8 ± 7.4 <0.001
CI therm (ml/min/m2) 2.12 ± 0.7 2.13 ± 0.9 0.40
CI fick (ml/min/m2) 1.99 ± 0.4 1.97 ± 0.4 0.42
  1. (PCWP, Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; CRT-D, previous cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillation implantion; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; LV, left ventricular; E, early transmitral flow velocity; A, atrial transmitral flow velocity; Sm, systolic mitral annular velocity; Em, early diastolic mitral annular velocity; PALS, peak atrial longitudinal strain; TPLS, time-to-peak atrial longitudinal strain; PAP, pulmonary arterial pressure; CI therm, cardiac index estimated by thermodilution; CI fick, cardiac index estimated by the Fick equation.)