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Table 1 Standard 2D-echocardiography data of the three groups of athletes

From: The effect of exercise training on left ventricular function in young elite athletes

  Cycling Soccer Basket Controls
Age (yrs) 17.6 ± 0.5 16.5 ± 2.5 17.0 ± 2.5 22.8 ± 3.2
Heart rate (bpm) 76.4 ± 11.5 71.05 ± 13.4 81.82 ± 12.4 73.2 ± 8.9
LV parameters     
IVS (mm) 9.47 ± 0.9 9.38 ± 1.0 9.16 ± 0.9 8.92 ± 0.9
PW(mm) 9.49 ± 0.8 9.25 ± 0.7 8.93 ± 0.9 8.76 ± 1.0#
LVDD (mm) 51.7 ± 2.6 50.2 ± 4.0 50.5 ± 3.6 47 ± 3.1♥ Δ ¶
LVSD (mm) 33.6 ± 1.7 31.9 ± 3.1 32.0 ± 3.3 30.2 ± 2.2
CMi (gr/m 2 ) 114.5 ± 18.5 105.9 ± 16.9 100.7 ± 14.3 87.4 ± 9.8£ * $
WRT 0.36 ± 0.05 0.37 ± 0.06 0.35 ± 0.05 0.38 ± 0.07
EF (%) 63.8 ± 2.5 65.6 ± 4.6 65.6 ± 5.1 61.4 ± 1.3Ω Φ
LV diastolic function     
E wave (m/s) 79.2 ± 14.5 97.1 ± 11.7£ 95.9 ± 15.3 86.4 ± 13.2
A wave (m/s) 42.9 ± 6.7§ 49.0 ± 17.5 53.0 ± 11.4 58.4 ± 12.5
DT (sec.) 158.8 ± 12.4 157.5 ± 18.9 175.1 ± 24.1 160.4 ± 54
IVRT (sec.) 70.7 ± 8.7 70.2 ± 7.1 66.3 ± 8.7 84 ± 26.4
  1. Legend: IVS: interventricular septum, PW: posterior wall, LVDD: left ventricle diastolic diameter, LVSD: left ventricle systolic diameter, EF: ejection fraction, CMi: cardiac mass index, WRT: wall ratio thickness, DT: deceleration time, IVRT: isovolumic relaxation time.
  2. Significant differences: *p = .004 vs. soccer, § p = .001 vs. controls, p = .03 vs. cycling, p < .001 vs. other groups, p = .001 vs. cycling, Δ p = .02 vs. soccer; p = .01 vs. basket; £ p < .001 vs. cycling, $ p = .04 vs. basket; Ω p = .01 vs. soccer;Φ p < .01 vs. basket; ¥ p = .006 vs. basket, p = .007 vs. controls; # p = .05 vs. controls.