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Table 2 Echocardiographic data of the study groups

From: Comparison of left ventricular mechanics in runners versus bodybuilders using speckle tracking echocardiography

  Runner (R) Bodybuilder (B) Normal control (N) p < 0.05 p < 0.01 p < 0.001
IVSd (mm) 10.8 ± 1.4 11.3 ± 1.7 10.6 ± 0.9    
LVIDd (mm) 49.8 ± 4.8 51.4 ± 4.8 48.2 ± 3.8 B > N   
LVPWd (mm) 10.5 ± 1.3 10.9 ± 1.3 10.6 ± 0.9    
LVM (g) 198 ± 52 224 ± 69 186 ± 30 B > N   
LVMi (g/m 2 ) 100 ± 24 105 ± 24 92 ± 15    
EDV (mL) 176 ± 32 178 ± 36 157 ± 26 R,B > N   
EDVi (mL/m 2 ) 85 ± 16 84 ± 12 77 ± 12    
ESV (mL) 80 ± 24 72 ± 17 69 ± 16    
ESVi (mL/m 2 ) 37 ± 12 34 ± 7 33 ± 8    
EF (%) 55 ± 9 60 ± 6 59 ± 5    
septal S’ (cm/s) 8.4 ± 0.5 8.7 ± 1.6 8.6 ± 0.7    
lateral S’ (cm/s) 10.7 ± 0.6 10.6 ± 0.4 11.0 ± 0.8    
longitudinal strain (%) −19.4 ± 3.4 −23.3 ± 2.1 −24.1 ± 3.0 R < B,N   
circumferential strain (%) −26.6 ± 3.8 −22.4 ± 4.3 −26.4 ± 2.7 B < R,N   
radial strain (%) 42.5 ± 5.5 44.2 ± 8.2 44.1 ± 4.5    
  1. One-way ANOVA followed by Fisher post-hoc test. Data are presented as mean ± SD. The more negative results represent the greater extent of longitudinal and circumferential deformation. B: bodybuilders (n = 14), EDV: end-diastolic volume, EF: ejection fraction, ESV: end-systolic volume, IVS: interventricular septal thickness, LVID: left ventricular internal diameter, LVM: left ventricular mass, LVPW: left ventricular posterior wall thickness, N: normal controls (n = 15), R: runners (n = 24). “d” refers to end-diastolic measures, “i” for indexed values to body surface area.