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Table 2 Averaged strain and strain rate of the left ventricle obtained in different imaging planes in awake and anesthetized goats

From: The use of strain, strain rate, and displacement by 2D speckle tracking for assessment of systolic left ventricular function in goats: applicability and influence of general anesthesia

Variable Units Awake (mean ± SD) Anesthetized (mean ± SD) 95% CI for difference of means p value
HR 1/min 94 ± 20 85 ± 11 −2 to 18 0.103
MAP mmHg n/a 87 ± 18 n/a n/a
LAX      
εL % −27.44 ± 2.22 −28.65 ± 2.21 0.28 to 2.15 0.014
εL-sys % −26.17 ± 2.23 −27.17 ± 2.49 −0.13 to 2.13 0.080
SRL-sys 1/s −2.29 ± 0.36 −1.96 ± 0.30 −0.51 to −0.15 0.001
SRL-E 1/s 2.92 ± 0.60 3.11 ± 0.35 −0.56 to 0.17 0.276
SRL-A 1/s 1.92 ± 0.81 1.50 ± 0.47 0.02 to 0.82 0.039
SAX-AP      
εC % −23.11 ± 2.17 −25.58 ± 3.11 0.96 to 3.98 0.003
εC-sys % −22.80 ± 2.45 −25.10 ± 3.21 0.75 to 3.84 0.006
εR % 58.58 ± 7.97 58.41 ± 11.65 −7.03 to 6.48 0.932
εR-sys % 55.24 ± 8.94 55.59 ± 12.65 −8.06 to 6.53 0.828
SRC-sys 1/s −2.15 ± 0.37 −1.9 ± 0.42 −0.48 to −0.03 0.028
SRC-E 1/s 2.93 ± 0.59 3.24 ± 0.62 −0.66 to 0.53 0.092
SRC-A 1/s 1.49 ± 0.89 1.08 ± 0.49 0.01 to 0.80 0.047
SRR-sys 1/s 2.36 ± 0.34 2.14 ± 0.49 −0.04 to 0.47 0.088
SRR-E 1/s −2.74 ± 0.77 −2.81 ± 0.74 −0.42 to 0.47 0.921
SRR-A 1/s −2.18 ± 1.39 −1.38 ± 0.80 −1.30 to −0.16 0.015
SAX-PM      
εC % −22.98 ± 2.87 −24.64 ± 2.92 0.09 to 3.24 0.040
εC-sys % −22.35 ± 2.97 −23.96 ± 3.23 −0.07 to 3.29 0.060
εR % 58.44 ± 9.21 63.92 ± 15.25 −14.71 to 2.22 0.139
εR-sys % 55.26 ± 9.95 61.86 ± 15.67 −14.74 to 1.45 0.102
SRC-sys 1/s −2.07 ± 0.32 −1.86 ± 0.3 −0.39 to −0.04 0.016
SRC-E 1/s 3.16 ± 0.49 3.20 ± 0.39 −0.33 to 0.25 0.783
SRC-A 1/s 1.28 ± 0.51 1.09 ± 0.45 −0.08 to 0.47 0.162
SRR-sys 1/s 2.50 ± 0.48 2.21 ± 0.29 0.06 to 0.50 0.016
SRR-E 1/s −2.72 ± 0.53 −2.67 ± 0.67 −0.40 to 0.34 0.869
SRR-A 1/s −1.83 ± 0.72 −1.38 ± 0.54 −0.81 to −0.03 0.038
SAX-CH      
εC % −22.12 ± 3.05 −25.43 ± 3.03 −5.26 to −1.41 0.002
εC-sys % −14.19 ± 1.94 −24.84 ± 3.24 −12.53 to −8.88 <0.001
εR % 57.71 ± 10.31 63.36 ± 12.53 −0.69 to 14.12 0.073
εR-sys % 53.90 ± 9.62 59.80 ± 12.88 0.33 to 14.04 0.041
SRC-sys 1/s −2.11 ± 0.48 −1.82 ± 0.21 0.11 to 0.48 0.004
SRC-E 1/s 3.09 ± 0.62 3.34 ± 0.50 −0.06 to 0.60 0.101
SRC-A 1/s 1.32 ± 0.43 1.19 ± 0.46 −0.40 to 0.18 0.420
SRR-sys 1/s 2.60 ± 0.43 2.33 ± 0.26 −0.55 to −0.03 0.031
SRR-E 1/s −3.05 ± 0.74 −2.79 ± 0.73 −0.19 to 0.61 0.290
SRR-A 1/s −1.71 ± 0.60 −1.59 ± 0.57 −0.27 to 0.44 0.617
  1. HR, heart rate; MAP, mean arterial pressure; LAX, long axis view; SAX-AP, short axis view at apical level; SAX-PM, short axis view at papillary muscle level; SAX-CH, short axis view at chordal level; εL, longitudinal peak strain; εL-sys, longitudinal peak systolic strain; SRL-sys, longitudinal peak systolic strain rate; SRL-E, longitudinal peak early-diastolic strain rate; SRL-A, longitudinal peak late-diastolic strain rate; εC, circumferential peak strain; εC-sys, circumferential peak systolic strain; εR, radial peak strain; εR-sys, radial peak systolic strain; SRC-sys, circumferential peak systolic strain rate; SRC-E, circumferential peak early-diastolic strain rate; SRC-A, circumferential peak late-diastolic strain rate; SRR-sys, radial peak systolic strain rate; SRR-E, radial peak early-diastolic strain rate; SRR-A, radial peak late-diastolic strain rate.