Skip to main content

Table 4 Final diagnosis of patients admitted with the primary diagnosis of ACS with the prevalence of typical echocardiographic findings reported by limited TTE with A-F mnemonic

From: Validity of a 5-minute focused echocardiography with A-F mnemonic performed by non-echocardiographers in the management of patients with acute chest pain

Final diagnosis Number of patients (%) Echocardiographic findings Echocardiographic diagnosis, n (%)
Confirmed ACS 1039 (79,19) RWMA 861 (82,87)
NSTEMI 543 (52,26) RWMA 426 (78,45)
STEMI 387 (37,25) RWMA 385 (99,48)
UA 92 (8,85) RWMA 33 (35,87)
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 17 (1,65) RWMA, apical ballooning 17 (100)
Adjective diagnosis in confirmed ACS 23 (2,21) listed below 23 (100)
Moderate/severe aortic stenosis 16 (1,54) AV calcification 16 (100)
Severe mitral regurgitation 3 (0,29) MR jet 3 (100)
Decompensated CHF 3 (0,29) dilated LV, LA, small pericardial/pleural effusion, low LVEF 3 (100)
Ventricular septal defect 1 (0,09) IVS interruption 1 (100)
Non-confirmed ACS 273 (20,81) any abnormality 151 (55,31)
Decompensated CHF 51 (18,68) dilated LV, LA, small pericardial/pleural effusion, low LVEF 51 (100)
Stable CAD 35 (12,92) RWMA 0 (0)
Acute pulmonary embolism 21 (7,69) RV overload 20 (95,27)
Aortic valve disease 15 (5,49) AV calcification 15 (100)
Myocarditis 10 (3,66) moderately impaired global LV contractility 8 (80)
Tachycardia (AF, SVT) 10 (3,66) atrial dilatation 8 (80)
Pericarditis 8 (2,93) pericardial effusion, thickened pericardium 8 (100)
Prinzmetal angina 8 (2,93) none 8 (100)
Pneumonia 6 (2,19) small pleural effusion 4 (66,666)
Mitral valve disease 5 (1,83) MR jet 5 (100)
Aortic dissection 5 (1,83) dilated aorta, dissection flap 5 (100)
Hypertensive crisis 6 (2,19) LVH 6 (100)
Exacerbated COPD 4 (1,47) RV dilatation 4 (100)
HOCM 4 (1,47) severe LVH, LVOTO 4 (100)
Cardiac tamponade 3 (1,09) pericardial effusion, RA and RV collapse 3 (100)
Ventricular septal defect 2 (0,73) IVS interruption 2 (100)
Hypovelemic shock 1 (0,37) small LV, IVC < 1 cm 1 (100)
Infective endocarditis associated with pacemaker electrode 1 (0,37) abnormal structures on the pacemaker electrode 1 (100)
Perivalvular leak in AVR 1 (0,37) perivalvular jet 1 (100)
Lung tumor 1 (0,37) none 1 (100)
Acute pancreatitis 1 (0,37) none 1 (100)
Exacerbated polimyositis 1 (0,37) none 1 (100)
Other 71 (26,01) no abnormal findings 71 (100)
  1. ACS-acute coronary syndrome; NSTEMI-non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; STEMI-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; UA-unstable angina; RWMAs-regional wall motion abnormalities; AV-aortic valve; MR-mitral regurgitation; LA-left atrium; LV-left ventricle; IVS-inteventricular septum; RV-right ventricle; RA-right atrium; IVC-inferior vena cava; CHF-chronic heart failure; COPD-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; AVR-aortic valve replacement; HOCM-hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy; LVH-left ventricular hypertrophy; LVOTO-left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.