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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics

From: Impact of B-type natriuretic peptide level on the risk of left atrial appendage thrombus in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a prospective study

   LAA Thrombus
All Subjects Present Absent P value
N = 261 N = 17 N = 244  
Age (years) 65 ± 12 69 ± 10 65 ± 12 0.190
Age ≥ 75 years 56 (21) 5 (29) 51 (21) 0.409
Age ≥ 65 years 150 (58) 13 (76) 137 (56) 0.101
Female 79 (30) 5 (29) 74 (30) 0.937
Hypertension 196 (75) 15 (88) 181 (74) 0.195
Diabetes mellitus 67 (26) 7 (41) 60 (25) 0.130
Congestive heart failure 102 (39) 13 (76) 89 (36) 0.001
History of stroke or TIA 35 (13) 5 (29) 30 (12) 0.045
Vascular disease 53 (20) 5 (29) 48 (20) 0.334
Dyslipidemia 126 (48) 9 (53) 117 (48) 0.691
BMI (Kg/m2) 31.4 ± 8.5 28 ± 5.7 31.7 ± 8.7 0.091
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.3 ± 1.1 1.9 ± 1.9 1.2 ± 1.0 0.076*
Warfarin 124 (48) 10 (59) 114 (47) 0.334
NOACs 48 (18) 3 (18) 45 (18) 0.935
Antiplatelet 140 (54) 9 (53) 131 (54) 0.952
CHADS2 score 1.9 ± 1.3 2.9 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.3 0.001*
CHA2DS2-VASc Score 3.0 ± 1.8 4.4 ± 1.6 3.0 ± 1.8 0.001*
AF chronicity     0.789
Paroxysmal 67 (26) 5 (29) 62 (25)  
Persistent 107 (41) 7 (41) 100 (41)  
Permanent 34 (13) 3 (18) 31 (13)  
Unknown 53 (20) 2 (12) 51 (21)  
LVEF (%) 47 ± 17 34 ± 13 48 ± 17 0.002
LVEDV index (mL/m2) 54 ± 29 69 ± 34 53 ± 29 0.054
LV mass index (g/m2) 103 ± 41 113 ± 29 102 ± 41 0.311
LA volume index (mL/m2) 33 ± 16 42 ± 18 33 ± 16 0.035
Degree of SEC (scale 0–4) 0.6 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.1 0.4 ± 0.9 <0.001*
SEC present 85 (33) 17 (100) 68 (28) <0.001
LAA emptying velocity (cm/s) 42 ± 22 25 ± 11 44 ± 22 0.001
BNP (pg/mL) 409 ± 554 775 ± 678 384 ± 537 0.001*
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%)
  2. TIA transient ischemic attack, BMI body mass Index, NOACs novel oral anticoagulants, AF atrial fibrillation, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LV left ventricular, LA left atrial, SEC spontaneous echo contrast, LAA left atrial appendage, BNP B-type natriuretic peptide, *Mann–Whitney test