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Table 1 Intergroup comparison of clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters

From: Echo-Doppler–derived indexes of ventricular stiffness and ventriculo-arterial interaction as predictors of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure

Characteristic Sinus rhythm New-onset AF p-value
  (n = 292) (n = 57)  
Age (years) 61.2 ± 15.7 67.7 ± 12.8 *0.003
Male, n (%) 203 (69.5) 35 (61.4) 0.229
Body surface area (m2) 1.71 ± 0.23 1.68 ± 0.19 0.320
SBP (mmHg) 122.4 ± 23.3 115.4 ± 25.2 0.094
DBP (mmHg) 74.1 ± 16.0 68.1 ± 14.7 *0.032
Hypertension, n (%) 94 (32.2) 28 (49.1) *0.014
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 52 (17.8) 19 (33.3) *0.008
Current smoker, n (%) 57 (19.5) 12 (21.1) 0.791
Ischemic CMP, n (%) 164 (56.2) 32 (56.1) 0.997
Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 29 (12.0) 10 (18.5) 0.264
BUN (mg/dL) 21.7 ± 14.9 24.4 ± 21.5 0.259
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.4 ± 1.5 2.0 ± 2.3 0.095
BNP (pg/ml) Median: 216.0 (81.8–749) Median: 566.0(180.5-1302.5) *0.011
Medications    
 Antiplatelet agent, n (%) 218 (74.7) 46 (80.7) 0.400
 RAS blockade, n (%) 243 (83.2) 49 (86.0) 0.608
 Diuretics, n (%) 131 (44.9) 42 (73.7) * < 0.001
 Beta blockade, n (%) 191 (65.4) 31 (54.4) 0.114
 Calcium channel blockade, n (%) 88 (30.1) 21 (36.8) 0.318
 Statin, n (%) 152 (52.1) 26 (45.6) 0.374
Echocardiographic parameters    
 Ejection fraction (%) 36.9 ± 9.4 35.3 ± 10.3 0.249
 LVEDD (mm) 52.4 ± 7.1 52.4 ± 7.9 0.964
 LVESD (mm) 42.0 ± 8.1 42.3 ± 8.7 0.814
 LA-AP (mm) 37.8 ± 7.4 40.3 ± 7.5 *0.023
 LA-ML (mm) 43.9 ± 7.5 47.8 ± 8.7 *0.001
 LA-SI (mm) 52.8 ± 8.7 57.5 ± 9.7 * < 0.001
 LA volume index (mm3/m2) 28.4 ± 12.7 36.1 ± 14.8 * < 0.001
 LV mass index (g/m2) 73.8 ± 27.6 74.8 ± 18.9 0.738
 E velocity (m/s) 0.65 ± 0.23 0.79 ± 0.30 * < 0.001
 A velocity (m/s) 0.72 ± 0.22 0.71 ± 0.25 0.706
 E/A 1.02 ± 0.63 1.22 ± 0.75 *0.036
 E/DT (cm/s) 0.39 ± 0.27 0.55 ± 0.37 *0.003
 e’ (m/s) 0.05 ± 0.02 0.04 ± 0.02 0.278
 a’ (m/s) 0.08 ± 0.02 0.07 ± 0.03 *0.001
 S’ (m/s) 0.05 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.02 0.223
 E/e’ 15.2 ± 6.8 19.1 ± 7.2 * < 0.001
 Ed (1/ml) 0.36 ± 0.22 0.47 ± 0.27 *0.009
 Ees (m/s) 1.02 ± 0.24 1.11 ± 0.37 0.195
 Ea (mmHg/ml) 2.67 ± 0.96 2.75 ± 1.43 0.717
 VVI 25.5 ± 9.1 32.1 ± 16.8 0.115
  1. Abbreviations: AF atrial fibrillation, CMP cardiomyopathy, BUN blood urea nitrogen, RAS renin-angiotensin system, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVESD, left ventricular end-systolic dimension; LA left atrial; AP anteroposterior; ML mediolateral; SI Superoinferior; DT Deceleration time; Ed left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic elastance; Ees, LV end-systolic elastance; Ea, effective arterial elastance; VVI, ventricular-vascular coupling index
  2. * p < 0.05