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Table 1 Clinical characteristics according to aPWV groups

From: Left ventricular twist mechanics and its relation with aortic stiffness in chronic kidney disease patients without overt cardiovascular disease

  Normal PWV <10 m/s Increased PWV ≥ 10 m/s p-value
n = 64 n = 42
Clinical demographics    
 Age 51.2 ± 14 63 ± 12 <0.001*
 Male gender (%) 45.4 41.2 0.455
 BSA (g/m2) 1.88 ± 0.21 1.87 ± 0.22 0.906
Cardiovascular risk factors    
 BMI (g/m2) 26.9 ± 5 27.8 ± 5.1 0.367
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 48.95 ± 20.1 30.5 ± 15.4 <0.001*
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 127.2 ± 20.4 140.5 ± 18.5 0.01*
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 77.9 ± 10.6 79.5 ± 10.5 0.451
 Diabetes (%) 20.3 71 <0.001*
 Hypertension (%) 62.5 82.8 <0.001*
 Family history of IHD (%) 29.7 26.8 0.755
Smoking status (%) Current    
 Current 6.3 9.8 0.295
 Ex 9.4 9.8  
 Never 45.3 34.1  
Medication    
 Aspirin (%) 28 37 0.367
 Clopidogrel (%) 2 7 0.135
 ACE-I (%) 34 69 <0.001*
 ARBs (%) 53 51 0.858
 Beta-blockers (%) 16 22 0.416
 CCB dihydropyridine (%) 25 38 0.151
 Loop diuretic (%) 22 34 0.112
 Thiazide diuretic (%) 2 10 0.06
 Any antihypertensive (%) 40.1 87.2  
 Statins (%) 61 80 0.110
 Prednisolone (%) 22 10 0.125
 Metformin (%) 9 18 0.081
 Gliclazide (%) 9 12 0.649
 Insulin (%) 8 41 <0.001*
  1. BSA body surface area; BMI body mass index; GFR glomerular filtration rate, CKD chronic kidney disease; BP blood pressure; ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker; CCB calcium channel blocker; IHD ischemic heart disease; ACE-I angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker
  2. *Statistically significant difference between the two groups