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Table 3 Echocardiographic and arterial stiffness parameters across CKD stages

From: Left ventricular twist mechanics and its relation with aortic stiffness in chronic kidney disease patients without overt cardiovascular disease

  CKD stage 1/2 CKD stage 3 CKD stage 4/5 p valuea Adjusted p valueb
Simpsons biplane EF (%) 63.7 ± 5.5 62.3 ± 4.9 62.5 ± 4.9 0.617 0.838
LVMI (g/m2) 60.5 ± 20 70 ± 19.8 75.6 ± 24.1 0.003 0.085
Concentric remodelling (%)RWT > 0.42 31 52.6 72.3 <0.001‡▪• <0.001‡▪•
E/e’ (average) 6.96 ± 2.25 9.41 ± 3.87 9.92 ± 3.96 <0.001‡ ▪ 0.013‡ ▪
TDI S’ - septal (cm/s) 11 ± 2.7 10.6 ± 3.7 9.1 ± 2.3 0.02▪• 0.03▪•
LV Twist (°) 18.5 ± 4.4 19.9 ± 5.4 24.6 ± 5.4 <0.001‡▪• <0.001‡▪•
PWV(m/s) 7.7 ± 2 10.3 ± 3.3 12.5 ± 4.2 <0.001‡▪• 0.001‡▪•
  1. LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction; LVMI left ventricular mass index; RWT regional wall thickness; LV left ventricular; PWV pulse wave velocity
  2. aStatistically significant difference between: CKD stage 1/2 and CKD stage 3, CKD stage 1/2 and CKD stage 4/5, CKD stage 3 and CKD stage 4/5
  3. bAdjusted for age, gender, diabetes, SBP, BMI, treated hyperlipidaemia, eGFR and family history of ischaemic heart disease