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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis of aPWV

From: Left ventricular twist mechanics and its relation with aortic stiffness in chronic kidney disease patients without overt cardiovascular disease

  Crude   Adjusteda   Adjustedb  
  Standardized β P -value Standardized β p-value Standardized β p-value
Age 0.635 <0.001* 0.492 <0.001* 0.467 <0.001*
Gender −0.172 0.079 −0.019 0.654 −0.013 0.691
BSA (g/m2) 0.27 0.187 0.031 0.238 0.345 0.459
Hemoglobin (g/L) −0.150 0.131 −0.059 0.481 −0.098 0.221
Hyperlipidemia 0.242 0.013* 0.118 0.144 0.065 0.433
Peripheral systolic BP (mmHg) 0.397 <0.001* 0.185 0.024* 0.169 0.059
Diabetes (%) 0.589 <0.001* 0.555 <0.001* 0.532 <0.001*
Hypertension (%) 0.308 <0.001* 0.294 0.013* 0.158 0.050*
BMI (g/m2) 0.055 0.579 −0.156 0.063 −0.133 0.118
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) −0.410 <0.001* −0.259 0.003* −0.234 0.008*
Echocardiographic parameters       
 Simpsons biplane EF(%) −0.117 0.237 −0.036 0.646 −0.094 0.634
 TDI S’ - septal (cm/s) 0.186 0.03 * 0.120 0.058 0.101 0.093
 E/e(average) 0.387 <0.001* 0.192 0.022* 0.113 0.089
 LVMI (g/m2) 0.379 <0.001* 0.165 0.03* 0.143 0.042*
 LV Twist(°) 0.388 0.003* 0.181 0.019* 0.163 0.025*
 GLS(%) 0.300 0.01* 0.186 0.09 0.060 0.130
 GCS(%) 0.046 0.197 0.018 0.458 0.010 0.634
  1. Standardized coefficients (β) refer to how many SDs a dependent variable (aPWV) will change, per standard deviation increase in the predictor variable. n = 106
  2. *statistically significant
  3. CKD chronic kidney disease; BSA body surface area; BP blood pressure; LVMI left ventricular mass index; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; EF ejection fraction; LV left ventricular
  4. aAdjusted for age, gender, diabetes, SBP, BMI, treated hyperlipidaemia, eGFR and family history of ischaemic heart disease
  5. bAdjusted for factors in Model 2 plus antihypertensive medication (b-blockers, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers) and prednisolone