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Table 4 Comparison of clinical, BNP level, conventional echocardiographic parameters, and longitudinal strain values (LpsS and LpsSR) in different RV segments in two PAH groups: non-worsening and worsening

From: Deformation pattern and predictive value of right ventricular longitudinal strain in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension

Variable Non-worsening
PAH children (n = 13)
Worsening
PAH children (n = 12)
p
6MWD (m) 416.41 ± 68.72 380.90 ± 104.00 0.341
SpO2 before 6MWT (%) 86.00 ± 11.11 84.30 ± 7.83 0.689
SpO2 after 6MWT (%) 77.41 ± 18.22 74.50 ± 11.53 0.667
WHO Functional class 2.38 ± 0.50 2.50 ± 0.67 0.631
BNP0 level (pg/ml) 30.53 ± 37.03 82.01 ± 74.80 0.039
PAPm (mmHg) 61.53 ± 18.25 64.36 ± 17.13 0.701
TR (mmHg) 91.23 ± 31.74 96.50 ± 14.05 0.602
sRV pressure (mmHg) 98.61 ± 40.41 111.50 ± 14.05 0.297
Pericardial effusion 2/13 (8 %) 5/12 (20 %) 0.200
RV-FAC (%) 41.07 ± 15.10 33.08 ± 9.51 0.131
RV MPI 0.26 (0.24,0.39) 0.35 (0.29,0.59) 0.129
TAPSE (cm) 1.93 ± 0.59 1.64 ± 0.61 0.247
RV S/D ratio 1.24 ± 0.28 1.36 ± 0.39 0.367
Indexed RA area (cm2) 12.63 ± 3.33 15.35 ± 15.70 0.547
Tej (ms) 280.50 ± 31.95 264.98 ± 29.18 0.219
LV-EI 1.31 ± 0.17 1.56 ± 0.26 0.010
S’ (cm/s) 12.83 ± 3.34 10.58 ± 3.50 0.114
LV-EF 71.76 ± 11.07 70.58 ± 8.86 0.771
RV-LpsS (%)    
RV free wall −17.38 ± 2.51 −13.66 ± 3.24 0.004
 Basal RV free wall −12.69 ± 4.64 −12.91 ± 4.01 0.899
 Mid RV free wall −20.76 ± 4.62 −14.00 ± 3.13 0.0001
 Apical RV free wall −18.69 ± 4.00 −14.08 ± 4.92 0.017
Apex −19.15 ± 4.25 −16.25 ± 4.37 0.106
IVS    
 Apical IVS −19.69 ± 5.49 −19.00 (−22.00,−13.00) 0.337
 Mid IVS −18.30 ± 4.76 −16.33 ± 6.63 0.399
 Basal IVS NA NA NA
RV-LpsSR(s −1 )    
RV free wall −1.16 ± 0.12 −1.01 ± 0.13 0.008
 Basal RV free wall −1.00 ± 0.19 −1.00 ± 0.09 0.956
 Mid RV free wall −1.37 ± 0.27 −1.07 ± 0.29 0.013
 Apical RV free wall −1.11 ± 0.12 −0.97 ± 0.16 0.090
Apex −1.15 ± 0.19 −1.04 ± 0.18 0.166
IVS    
 Apical IVS −1.21 ± 0.32 −1.20 ± 0.20 0.896
 Mid IVS −1.17 ± 0.27 −1.05 ± 0.34 0.372
 Basal IVS NA NA NA
  1. Data are presented as means ± SD or median (25th, 75th percentiles) or as numbers (percentages)
  2. BNP brain natriuretic peptide, FAC fractional area change, IVS interventricular septum, LpsS longitudinal peak systolic strain, LpsSR longitudinal peak systolic strain rate, LV-EF left ventricular ejection fraction, LV-EI left ventricular eccentricity index, MPI myocardial performance index, NA no available, PAH pulmonary arterial hypertension, PAPm mean pulmonary arterial pressure, RA right atrium, RV right ventricle, S’ tricuspid annular systolic velocity, S/D ratio systolic/diastolic ratio, SpO 2 oxygen saturation, sRV pressure systolic right ventricular pressure, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, Tej pulmonary ejection time, TR tricuspid regurgitation, 6MWD 6-min walk distance