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Table 1 Methodology and sample descriptions for studies examining IVC diameter as an estimate of CVP or RAP

From: The efficacy of sonographic measurement of inferior vena cava diameter as an estimate of central venous pressure

Authors Year N Patient population Percent on mechanical ventilation PEEP (cm H2O) Gold standard comparison Mean CVP or RAP Patient position Sonographer Other notes
Taniguchi et al. [19] 2015 90 Elective right heart catheterization 0 % n/a RAP 8 mmHg Supine Sonographer 9 % post-heart transplant
Sobczyk et al. [24] 2015 50 Elective cardiac surgery 100 % 4.5 CVP 6.7 mmHg Supine Sonographer  
Tsutsui et al. [22] 2014 75 Decompensated heart failure 0 % n/a RAP 13 mmHg Supine Sonographer  
Zhang et al. [21] 2014 72 Gastrointestinal surgery with hypovolemia 0 % n/a CVP 3 mmHg Supine Sonographer Repeated after fluids
Citilcioglu et al. [25] 2014 45 ER patients with invasive monitor 24 % 5 CVP 7.7 mmHg (8.7 mmHg with mechanical ventilation) Supine a  
Prekker et al. [26] 2013 65 Medical ICU patients 0 % n/a CVP 7 mmHg (median) Supine MD in IM, ICU, ER  
De Lorenzo et al. [27] 2012 65 ER and ICU patients with critical illness 43 % a CVP 10.4 cmH2O Supine ER MD or RN, ICU MD Subxiphoid views in 57 patients
Patel et al. [16] 2011 36 Decompensated heart failure 0 % n/a RAP 11 mmHg Supine Sonographer 20 % moderate TR 8 % severe TR 25 % AF
Yildirimturk et al. [15] 2011 39 Rheumatic mitral stenosis 0 % n/a RAP 9.7 mmHg Supine Sonographer 44 % in AF
Nagdev et al. [28] 2010 73 Critical ER patients with central catheter 19 % a CVP 10.5 mmHg Supine ER MD  
Schefold et al. [29] 2010 30 Severe sepsis, septic shock 100 % 12 CVP 15 cmH2O Supine ICU MD  
Arthur et al. [10] 2009 95 Elective cardiac surgery 100 % 0; ventilator turned off CVP 14.5 mmHg Supine Anesthesia MD TEE only
Lorsomradee et al. [11] 2007 70 Elective cardiac surgery 100 % 0, 5, 10 CVP 11, 12, 14 mmHg Supine Anesthesia MD TEE only
Brennan et al. [18] 2007 102 Elective right heart catheterization 0 % n/a RAP 7 mmHg Supine Sonographer 9 % in AF 30 % post-heart transplant
Ommen et al. [30] 2000 71 Cardiac catheterization lab 0 % n/a RAP a Supine a  
Nagueh et al. [31] 1996 35 Elective right heart catheterization or critical illness 34 % a RAP 9 mmHg Supine Sonographer  
Jue et al. [12] 1992 49 ICU or CCU 100 % a RAP a a a  
Kircher et al. [3] 1990 83 Cardiac catheterization lab 0 % n/a RAP 11 mmHg a Sonographer  
Simonson et al. [32] 1988 27 Awake patients with pulmonary arterial catheters 0 % n/a RAP a Supine a  
Moreno et al. [17] 1984 175 80 healthy volunteers; 95 with cardiac abnormalities; 65 with right heart catheterization 0 % n/a RAP >7 mmHg in 35/65 patients a Sonographer 17 % in AF
Mintz et al. [20] 1981 50 Elective right heart catheterization 0 % n/a RAP a Supine Sonographer BSA adjusted
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