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Table 2 Advanced echocardiographic parameters within subgroups

From: Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement by colour tissue doppler imaging as an assessment of diastolic function

  Controls
(n = 49)
Severe Systolic HF
(n = 45)
LV Hypertrophy
(n = 49)
LV Dilation
(n = 30)
Mitral Regurgitation
(n = 33)
TDI
 s’, cm/s 6.2 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 1.2*** 5.4 ± 1.1** 2.9 ± 1.1*** 5.3 ± 2.3
 e’, cm/s −7.6 ± 2.3 −4.4 ± 1.6*** −5.9 ± 2.2*** −3.6 ± 1.7*** −5.3 ± 2.5***
 a’, cm/s −7.6 ± 1.8 −5.7 ± 2.3*** −6.8 ± 1.7* −4.3 ± 2.0*** −5.6 ± 2.6***
 e’ + a’, cm/s −15.2 ± 2.7 −10.1 ± 2.5*** −12.7 ± 2.2*** −7.9 ± 2.7*** −11.0 ± 4.6***
 TT-s’, mm 11.4 ± 2.0 6.5 ± 2.3*** 10.8 ± 2.0 4.7 ± 2.5*** 9.3 ± 4.3*
 TT-e’, mm 7.3 ± 2.2 3.6 ± 1.8*** 5.6 ± 2.1*** 2.6 ± 1.2*** 4.8 ± 2.6***
 TT-a’, mm 5.2 ± 1.5 4.0 ± 1.7*** 5.2 ± 1.5 3.1 ± 1.6*** 4.2 ± 1.9**
 TT-e’ + TT-a’, mm 12.6 ± 2.3 7.5 ± 2.2*** 10.8 ± 2.2*** 5.7 ± 1.9*** 9.0 ± 4.0***
M-mode
 MAPSE, mm 12.3 ± 2.4 7.4 ± 2.1*** 11.3 ± 2.0* 5.4 ± 2.2*** 10.4 ± 4.1*
2D strain
 LS, % −14.8 ± 3.8 −9.1 ± 4.5*** −12.0 ± 3.8** −6.6 ± 4.3*** −12.1 ± 4.8**
 LD, mm 15.4 ± 2.6 7.7 ± 3.0*** 15.8 ± 3.0 6.1 ± 3.8*** 12.7 ± 5.7*
 s, cm/s 6.5 ± 1.5 4.0 ± 1.0*** 5.7 ± 1.0** 2.5 ± 2.0*** 5.0 ± 1.9***
 e, cm/s −6.5 ± 2.8 −3.8 ± 1.6*** −5.4 ± 2.1* −2.3 ± 1.9*** −5.3 ± 2.7
 a, cm/s −7.4 ± 1.7 −5.3 ± 1.9*** −6.5 ± 2.0* −4.1 ± 1.8*** −5.4 ± 2.2***
 e + a, cm/s −13.9 ± 3.2 −9.1 ± 2.3*** −11.9 ± 2.6** −6.5 ± 3.0*** −10.7 ± 4.3**
 s, s−1 −1.0 ± 0.3 −0.8 ± 0.2*** −0.9 ± 0.4 −0.8 ± 0.3** −1.0 ± 0.4
 e, s−1 1.3 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.5*** 1.0 ± 0.3** 0.7 ± 0.4*** 1.1 ± 0.4*
 a, s−1 1.2 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.4*** 1.1 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5** 1.1 ± 0.4
 e + a, s−1 2.5 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.6*** 2.2 ± 0.7* 1.6 ± 0.8*** 2.1 ± 0.7**
  1. TDI tissue Doppler Imaging, s’ systolic tissue velocity by TDI measured at the mitral annulus, e’ early diastolic tissue velocity by TDI measured at the mitral annulus, a’ late diastolic tissue velocity by TDI measured at the mitral annulus, TT-s’ systolic displacement measured at the mitral annulus, TT-e’ early diastolic displacement measured at the mitral annulus, TT-a’ late diastolic displacement measured at the mitral annulus, MAPSE M-mode derived mitral annular plane systolic excursion, LS longitudinal strain by 2D strain imaging, LD longitudinal displacement by 2D strain imaging, s systolic tissue velocity/strain rate by 2D strain imaging measured at the basal septal and lateral segments, e early diastolic tissue velocity/strain rate by 2D strain imaging measured at the basal septal and lateral segments, a late diastolic tissue velocity/strain rate by 2D strain imaging measured at the basal septal and lateral segments
  2. *P <0.05 compared with the control group
  3. **P <0.01 compared with the control group
  4. ***P <0.001 compared with the control group