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Table 2 Echocardiographic parameters in survivors and nonsurvivors with acute PE

From: Clinical and echocardiographic predictors of mortality in acute pulmonary embolism

  Overall Non-Survivors Survivors p-Value
Parameter (n) 69 14 55  
 TAPSE (52) (cm) 1.9 [1.5–2.3] 2.1 [1.2–2.4] 1.9 [1.6–2.2] 0.82
 Global RVLS (69) (%) −18.1 [−20.8–14.9] −15.7 [−19.2–12.1] −18.6 [−21.8–15.6] 0.05
 Average Septal RV Wall strain (69) (%) −17.8 [−22.7–13.9] −16.8 [−18.6–9.3] −17.8 [−22.9–14.7] 0.20
 Average Free Wall RV Wall strain (69) (%) −18.2 [−22.8–13.9] −15 [−18.7–10.3] −19.2 [−23.2–14.3] 0.04
 RV Tei Index (59) 0.5 [0.4–0.5] 0.5 [0.5–0.6] 0.5 [0.4–0.5] 0.01
 Pulmonary Artery Acceleration Time (64) (ms × 10) 9.5 [7–12] 9 [7–10] 10 [7–12] 0.58
 RV/LV ratio in systole (52) 1 [0.8–1.4] 1.1 [1–1.4] 1 [0.8–1.5] 0.74
 RV/LV ratio in diastole (52) 0.7 [0.6–0.9] 0.8 [0.7–1] 0.7 [0.6–0.9] 0.35
 RV base (42) (cm) 3.8 [3.3–4.3] 4.2 [3.5–4.3] 3.7 [3.3–4.3] 0.61
 RV middle (39) (cm) 3.3 [2.9–3.6] 3.5 [3–4.5] 3.3 [2.9–3.6] 0.31
 RV length (39) (cm) 7.5 [7–7.9] 7.5 [7.2–7.8] 7.5 [6.9–7.9] 0.61
 RV diastolic diameter (52) (cm) 2.7 [2.1–3.1] 2.7 [2.3–3.1] 2.7 [2.1–3.2] 0.41
 LV diastolic diameter (52) (cm) 3.5 [2.9–4.1] 3.2 [2.9–3.8] 3.6 [3–4.2] 0.63
 RV systolic diameter (52) (cm) 2.4 [2.1–2.9] 2.6 [2.2–2.9] 2.4 [2–2.9] 0.57
 LV systolic diameter (34) (cm) 2.3 [1.9–2.7] 2.2 [1.9–3] 2.4 [2–2.6] 0.65
 RV fractional area change (67) (%) 34.4 [27.6–43.1] 27.9 [19.6–35.8] 38.6 [28.9–43.8] 0.02
 RV area in diastole (67) (cm2) 24.3 [19.9–31] 25 [22–44] 24.1 [19.3–29.8] 0.22
 RV area in Systole (67) (cm2) 16.8 [11.4–19.6] 16.8 [14.6–26.3] 16.9 [11.1–19.4] 0.20
 RV basal free wall strain (69) (%) −21.4 [−27.4–13.5] −14.8 [−23.9–10.9] −22.4 [−28.2–16.1] 0.06
 RV middle free wall strain (69) (%) −16.3 [−22.6–9.5] −12.4 [−14.5–9.2] −17.9 [−23.5–9.8] 0.10
 RV apical free wall strain (69) (%) −13.9 [−21.4–8.3] −11.4 [−15.2–7.7] −14.9 [−21.4–9.2] 0.33
 RV basal septal strain (69) (%) −19 [−24.5–13.9] −17.1 [−20.1–13] −19.6 [−24.8–13.9] 0.23
 RV middle septal strain (69) (%) −18.4 [−23.3–13.7] −15.6 [−22.8–8.5] −19 [−22.8–14.2] 0.32
 RV apical septal strain (69) (%) −16 [−19.7–9.5] −12.1 [−17.7–7] −16.4 [−19.9–9.8] 0.15
RV subjective size 0.28
 Normal RV size 39 (56.52) 7 (50) 32 (58.18)  
 Mild RV dilation 11 (15.94) 3 (21.43) 8 (14.55)  
 Moderate RV dilation 12 (17.39) 1 (7.14) 11 (20)  
 Severe RV dilation 7 (10.14) 3 (21.43) 4 (7.27)  
RV subjective function 0.60
 Normal RV function 38 (55.07) 6 (42.86) 32 (58.18)  
 Mildly reduced RV function 10 (14.49) 2 (14.29) 8 (14.55)  
 Moderately reduced RV function 15 (21.74) 4 (28.57) 11 (20)  
 Severely reduced RV function 6 (8.7) 2 (14.29) 4 (7.27)  
LV ejection fraction (69) 0.07
 LV ejection fraction < 40 % 6 (8.7) 3 (21.43) 3 (5.45)  
 LV ejection fraction 40–50 % 6 (8.7) 2 (14.29) 4 (7.27)  
 LV ejection fraction >50 % 57 (82.61) 9 (64.29) 48 (87.27)  
  1. Shown are median and inter-quartile range in brackets or number of patients with percent of patients in parentheses. P-value denotes comparison between non-survivors and survivors
  2. Abbreviations: RV right ventricle, LV left ventricle, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RVLS RV longitudinal strain