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Table 4 Echocardiographic five-year follow-up of the rugby players

From: Left ventricular remodeling and the athlete’s heart, irrespective of quality load training

  I year II year III year IV year V year
Age (yrs) 22,7 ± 5,8 23,2 ± 5,74 23,9 ± 5,98 24,5 ± 6,32 25,11 ± 6,39
BSA (m2) 2,05 ± 0,1 2,03 ± 0,12 2,04 ± 0,11 2,04 ± 0,14 2,04 ± 0,12
Height (cm) 178,1 ± 8,64 177,5 ± 6,44 178,2 ± 6,36 178,2 ± 7,07 178,11 ± 6,98
Weight (kg) 86,19 ± 14,76 85,41 ± 13,24 85,28 ± 13,3 85,56 ± 13,26 86,22 ± 13,75
HR 66,95 ± 10,48 72,3 ± 7,11 73,5 ± 6,02 72,54 ± 5,29 71,1 ± 6,21
IVS (mm) 9,53 ± 1,03 9,67 ± 1,18 9,98 ± 1,0 9,73 ± 1,0 9,79 ± 0,98
PW (mm) 9,63 ± 0,88 9,71 ± 1,02 9,90 ± 0,96 9,64 ± 0,90 9,73 ± 0,94
LVEDd(mm) 50,43 ± 4,39 50,16 ± 3,46 50,01 ± 3,50 52,04 ± 3,59 52,32 ± 3,23
LVESd(mm) 32,51 ± 4,24 32,24 ± 3,39 32,06 ± 3,9 32,63 ± 3,88 32,8 ± 4,16
AoR(mm) 30,68 ± 6,04 31,05 ± 3,11 31,05 ± 2,04 31,17 ± 2,57 30,95 ± 2,15
LVCMi (g/m2) 81,5 ± 18,6 82,4 ± 15,5 83,5 ± 20,6 81,2 ± 17,5 81,9 ± 23,6
Atrium (mm) 33,75 ± 6,63 34,85 ± 5,95 35,04 ± 6,67 34,46 ± 6,36 35,65 ± 5,78
RV(mm) 22,26 ± 3,49 21,39 ± 3,31 22,75 ± 4,11 23,46 ± 3,79 23,0 ± 3,86
EF% 63,11 ± 7,52 66,33 ± 1,10 66,16 ± 4,62 65,67 ± 3,50 67,14 ± 4,09
E peck (cm/s) 86,45 ± 11,15 92,33 ± 10,65 88,89 ± 21,57 93,17 ± 12,12 104,05 ± 15,58
A peak (cm/s) 55,09 ± 12,96 56,11 ± 14,34 55,22 ± 14,15 55,04 ± 16,40 58,25 ± 14,70
DT (ms) 193,18 ± 23,38 172,11 ± 41,62 191,56 ± 15,06 188,33 ± 32,36 183,09 ± 19,90
IVRT (ms) 69,81 ± 10,25 71,67 ± 9,27 73,18 ± 10,17 78,05 ± 12,51 77,92 ± 8,71
E/A 1,62 ± 0,28 1,73 ± 0,35 1,66 ± 0,42 1,79 ± 0,44 1,82 ± 0,45
  1. Legend: BSA body surface area, HR heart rate, IVS interventricular septum, PW posterior wall, LVEDd left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, LVESd left ventricular end-systolic diameter, LVMI left ventricular mass index, AoR diameter of aortic root, RV right ventricular diameter, EF ejection fraction, A A wave, E E wave, DT Deceleration Time, IVRT Isovolumic relaxation time